Flashcards in Lesson 1D Deck (25)
What is the echogenicity of the thyroid gland?
Uniformly echogenic relative to the overlying strap muscles of the neck
As a region of parenchyma sonographically distinct from the remainder of the thyroid
Where are thyroid nodules located?
Within the confines of the echogenic thyroid capsule
How many dimensions should the size of the thyroid nodule be measured in when detected?
What should happen if a thyroid nodule is detected? (2)
- upper pole, mid gland or lower pole
What are some sonographic features for differential diagnosis? (6)
1. Nodule echogenicity
3. Cystic change
4. Echogenic foci with comet-tail artifact representing colloid
6. Flow pattern
- peripheral or central
Comet tail artifact
Is a short path reverberation artefact that weakens with each reverberation, resulting in a vertical echogenic artefact that rapidly fades as it continues in to the ultrasound image
Are benign cystic fluid collections that occur within the fluid-filled sacs that contain comet tail artifacts in them
Usually contains only fluid, and it is surrounded by a very thin wall
- not dangerous
Is a functional cyst that occurs when bleeding occurs within a cyst
Nodules on a wall of a cysts
What is the echogenicity of a thyroid carcinoma?
They are hypoechoic relative to the surrounding thyroid parenchyma
What is not common in predominantly cystic nodules?
What can cysts contain? (4)
1. Serous fluid
3. Old hemorrhage
4. Resultant echogenic fluid
What are examples of nonuniform patterns of degeneration? (3)
1. Mural nodules
3. Internal debris
What are assoicated with comet tail artifact?
Punctate echogenic foci
What are comet tail artifacts?
Benign cystic nodules
Where is calcification found? (3)
1. Papillary thyroid carcinomas
2. Medullary thyroid carcinomas
3. Anaplastic thyroid carcinomas
What is the most specific sonographic feature associated with thyroid malignancy?
Are punctuate echogenic foci without acoustic shadowing or associated comet-tail artifact
What kind of vascularity do benign nodules have?
Peripheral flow patterns
What kind of vascularity do malignant nodules have?
Extension of a mass beyond the thyroid capsule into adjacent trachea or muscle is highly suggestive of an aggressive malignancy
What are some suspicious features of local lymphadenopathy? (5)
1. Rounded shape
2. Loss of fatty hilum
3. Cystic change
5. Irregular internal hypervascularity