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Flashcards in Lesson 1D Deck (25)
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1

What is the echogenicity of the thyroid gland?

Uniformly echogenic relative to the overlying strap muscles of the neck

2

Thyroid nodules

As a region of parenchyma sonographically distinct from the remainder of the thyroid

3

Where are thyroid nodules located?

Within the confines of the echogenic thyroid capsule

4

How many dimensions should the size of the thyroid nodule be measured in when detected?

3

5

What should happen if a thyroid nodule is detected? (2)

1. Size/measure
2. Location
- upper pole, mid gland or lower pole

6

What are some sonographic features for differential diagnosis? (6)

1. Nodule echogenicity
2. Morphology
3. Cystic change
4. Echogenic foci with comet-tail artifact representing colloid
5. Calcifications
6. Flow pattern
- peripheral or central

7

Comet tail artifact

Is a short path reverberation artefact that weakens with each reverberation, resulting in a vertical echogenic artefact that rapidly fades as it continues in to the ultrasound image

8

Colloid cysts

Are benign cystic fluid collections that occur within the fluid-filled sacs that contain comet tail artifacts in them

9

Simple cysts

Usually contains only fluid, and it is surrounded by a very thin wall
- not dangerous

10

Hemorrhagic cysts

Is a functional cyst that occurs when bleeding occurs within a cyst

11

Mural nodules

Nodules on a wall of a cysts

12

What is the echogenicity of a thyroid carcinoma?

They are hypoechoic relative to the surrounding thyroid parenchyma

13

What is not common in predominantly cystic nodules?

Thyroid cancer

14

What can cysts contain? (4)

1. Serous fluid
2. Colloid
3. Old hemorrhage
4. Resultant echogenic fluid

15

What are examples of nonuniform patterns of degeneration? (3)

1. Mural nodules
2. Septations
3. Internal debris

16

What are assoicated with comet tail artifact?

Punctate echogenic foci

17

What are comet tail artifacts?

Benign cystic nodules

18

Where is calcification found? (3)

1. Papillary thyroid carcinomas
2. Medullary thyroid carcinomas
3. Anaplastic thyroid carcinomas

19

What is the most specific sonographic feature associated with thyroid malignancy?

Microcalcifications

20

Microcalcifications

Are punctuate echogenic foci without acoustic shadowing or associated comet-tail artifact

21

What kind of vascularity do benign nodules have?

Peripheral flow patterns

22

What kind of vascularity do malignant nodules have?

Internal vascularity

23

Lymphadenopathy

Extension of a mass beyond the thyroid capsule into adjacent trachea or muscle is highly suggestive of an aggressive malignancy

24

What are some suspicious features of local lymphadenopathy? (5)

1. Rounded shape
2. Loss of fatty hilum
3. Cystic change
4. Microcalcifications
5. Irregular internal hypervascularity

25

What are the 2 most reliable benign features for the thyroid gland?

1. Near-complete cystic appearance
2. Ring-down artifact in colloid cysts/nodules