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1

How many parathyroid glands do you have?

4
- 2 on each side

2

Where are the parathyroid glands located?

Two embedded in the posterior surface of each lobe of the thyroid gland

3

What are the parathyroid glands surrounded by?

Fine connective tissue capsules

4

When do you see the parathyroid glands in US?

When they are diseased
- otherwise you dont normally see them

5

What do parathyroid glands secrete?

Parathyroid hormone
- PTH
- parathormone

6

What is the main function of the PTH?

Is to increase the blood calcium level when it is low

7

What happens when blood calcium levels fall?

Secretion of PTH is increased

8

What happens when blood calcium levels rise?

Secretion of PTH is decreased

9

What 2 things from the thyroid gland act in a complementary manner to maintain blood calcium levels?

1. Parathormone
2. Calcitonin

10

What is maintaining blood calcium levels needed for? (4)

1. Muscle contraction
2. Nerve transmission
3. Blood clotting
4. Normal action of many enzymes

11

FNA

Fine needle aspiration

12

Fine needle aspiration

Is the procedure of choice in the evaluation of thyroid nodules

13

What are the benefits to FNA? (3)

1. High in accuracy
2. Decreased unnecessary operative procedures in patients with benign nodules
3. Increased the probability that surgery will be performed on those with malignant disease

14

What categories can FNA of thyroid nodules be? (6)

1. Malignant
2. Benign
3. Thyroiditis
4. Follicular neoplasm
5. Suspicious
6. Non-diagnostic

15

What are examples of diagnostic procedures? (4)

1. Thyroid glands' ability to concentrate iodine and certain radioactive isotopes
2. Radioactive isotopes (tracers) are swallowed or injected into the bloodstream - taken up by the thyroid gland
3. As they decay, a special camera can detect the energy that is released
- creating a picture of the thyroid gland
4. Distinguish a nodule as hot, warm, or cold

16

What does it mean if a thyroid nodule is hot?

They take up excessive amounts of isotope and indicate autonomously functioning nodules

17

How do hot nodules appear?

Very dark

18

What does it mean if a thyroid nodule is warm?

Normal thyroid function

19

How do warm nodules appear?

Gray

20

What does it mean if a thyroid nodule is cold?

They take up minimal amounts of radioactive isotope
- hypofunctional or nonfunctional thyroid tissue

21

What is nuclear imaging associated with?

A low yield of cancer diagnoses

22

How do cold nodules appear?

Gray with white spots in it