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Flashcards in Legal 1-25 Deck (26)
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1

If a paramedic receives an order from a physician that he or she feels is detrimental to the patient's best interests, the paramedic should:

  A. carry out the order, but factually and carefully document the event.  
  B. not carry out the order and discuss the issue with the physician later.  
  C. tell the patient that the physician's order is appropriate for him or her.  
  D. immediately discuss with the physician why the paramedic feels that way. 

D

2

Which of the following is an example of a protocol?
Choose one answer.
  A. Radio orders  
  B. Standing orders  
  C. Online medical control  
  D. Verbal order by a physician  

B

3

Ethics related to the practice and delivery of health care is called:
Choose one answer.
  A. bioethics.  
  B. valued ethics.  
  C. applied ethics.  
  D. medical morality.  

A

4

You deliver a 61-year-old man with abdominal pain to a busy emergency department. A staff nurse instructs you to take the patient to the triage area where he will be tended to later. She further tells you that after you leave a copy of your patient care report with the clerk, you are free to leave. You should:
Choose one answer.
  A. do as the nurse instructs you and thoroughly document the incident to ensure you are not accused of abandonment. 
  B. leave the patient in the triage area, give your patient care report to the clerk and tell the clerk to keep an eye on the patient.  
  C. advise the nurse that you will remain with the patient until the nurse has taken your verbal report and properly assumed care of the patient.  
  D. transfer the patient to a gurney in a highly visible area, advise the nurse of what you did, and give the nurse a copy of your patient care report.  

C

5

A Medical Order for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST) would MOST likely apply to a patient:
Choose one answer.
  A. who is in respiratory failure but has decision-making capacity.  
  B. who has been in cardiac arrest for less than 10 minutes.  
  C. with a terminal illness whose cardiac arrest was witnessed.  
  D. with impending pulmonary failure but who is not in cardiac arrest.  

D

6

During the attempted resuscitation of a 79-year-old man in cardiac arrest, a young man arrives at the scene and asks you to cease resuscitative efforts. He further tells you that the patient has entrusted him to make all of his medical decisions. You should:
Choose one answer.
  A. continue full resuscitative efforts and ask the man if the patient has a living will and if he has documentation naming him as the person authorized to make decisions.  
  B. limit your resuscitative efforts to basic life support only and cease resuscitation altogether if the man can present a valid advance directive.  
  C. cease all resuscitative efforts, contact medical control, and advise medical control that a surrogate decision maker is present and has requested you to stop.  
  D. advise the man that, because he does not have valid documentation that he is authorized to make decisions for the patient, you must continue resuscitation.  

A

7

A 40-year-old man presents with bizarre behavior. His speech is slurred and he is very belligerent. His blood glucose level is 35 mg/dL. The patient tells you to get out of his house. You should:
Choose one answer.
  A. administer oxygen only until you can obtain a court order to start an IV and administer dextrose.  
  B. utilize law enforcement to help restrain the patient so that you can start an IV line and give him dextrose.  
  C. monitor the patient's condition for 15 minutes and then begin emergency treatment if he does not improve.  
  D. remain professional and advise the patient that he is not legally capable of refusing EMS treatment.  

D

8

Patient autonomy is MOST accurately defined as the:
Choose one answer.
  A. court's support and upholding of the rights of a patient with regard to health care decisions.  
  B. patient's right to direct his or her own care and to decide how end-of-life care should be provided.  
  C. inability of the patient to refuse medical treatment once he or she has given appropriate consent.  
  D. right of the patient to determine which medications the paramedic should administer for a given situation.

B

9

When a person experiences an injury and seeks redress for that injury:
Choose one answer.
  A. the judicial process must determine who was responsible.  
  B. it is usually the paramedic who is found grossly negligent.  
  C. it must be established that the injury led to a bad outcome.  
  D. he or she must prove that the standard of care was provided.  

A

10

Patients with decision-making capacity:
Choose one answer.
  A. cannot refuse EMS treatment and transport after they have given consent for it.  
  B. have the right to refuse all or part of the emergency medical care offered to them.  
  C. must agree to EMS transport if they give consent for emergency medical treatment.  
  D. cannot withdraw consent unless their conditions are deemed to be non-life-threatening. 

B

11

Resuscitation efforts would MOST likely be ceased in the prehospital setting on a patient with:
Choose one answer.
  A. blunt trauma arrest.  
  B. witnessed cardiac arrest.  
  C. an extensive cardiac history.  
  D. hypothermic cardiac arrest.  

A

12

Which of the following statements regarding emergency vehicle laws is correct?
Choose one answer.
  A. The Star of Life insignia permits an ambulance to run a red light or stop sign if it is safe.  
  B. All state statutes require emergency vehicles to be operated in a safe and prudent manner.  
  C. An ambulance must use its lights and siren when transporting any acutely ill or injured patient.  
  D. Most states allow an emergency vehicle to exceed the speed limit by 20 MPH if it is safe to do so.  

B

13

An advance directive is MOST accurately defined as a:
Choose one answer.
  A. written document that expresses the wants, needs, and desires of a patient in reference to his or her future medical care.  
  B. legal document that describes which life-sustaining procedures are to be performed if the patient's condition acutely deteriorates.  
  C. notarized document that is executed by a terminally ill patient's family when the patient develops cardiopulmonary arrest.  
  D. general guideline provided to the paramedic by the medical director that stipulates the level of care provided to terminally ill patients.  

A

14

Ethics is MOST accurately defined as:
Choose one answer.
  A. the philosophy of right and wrong, of moral duties, and of ideal professional behavior.  
  B. the professional behavior that a person's peers as well as the general public expect.  
  C. behavior that is consistent with the law and an attitude that society in general expects.  
  D. a code of conduct that can be defined by society, religion, or a person, affecting character, conduct, and conscience.  

A

15

Which of the following scenarios is considered by most states to be a medical examiner case?
Choose one answer.
  A. Any violent or unexpected death  
  B. Death of a criminal who is on probation  
  C. Death of a person under 45 years of age  
  D. Any patient who dies outside the hospital  

A

16

Which of the following statements regarding the harm element of a negligence lawsuit is MOST correct?
Choose one answer.
  A. The burden of proof for establishing harm rests with the defendant.  
  B. Serious injury must have occurred in order for harm to be established.  
  C. A loss of earning capacity is a form of harm that the patient may claim.  
  D. Loss of income is the most common form of harm proven in a lawsuit.  

C

17

The BEST legal protection for the paramedic is to:
Choose one answer.
  A. always transport the patient to the hospital of the patient's choice, regardless of the patient's clinical condition.  
  B. provide a detailed patient assessment and appropriate medical care, followed by complete and accurate documentation.  
  C. routinely obtain more than the minimum number of continuing education credits required by the state department of health.  
  D. treat all patients with respect and remain aware that patients' cultural beliefs may differ from those of the paramedic.  

B

18

One of the major differences between laws and ethics is that laws:
Choose one answer.
  A. allow a person to determine right from wrong.  
  B. are usually broken because of an unethical act.  
  C. have sanctions for violation that are enforceable.  
  D. are reflective of a person's moral responsibilities.  

C

19

If a conscious patient with decision-making capacity refuses care for a potentially life-threatening condition:
Choose one answer.
  A. you must begin lifesaving treatment at once.  
  B. he or she cannot be treated without a court order.  
  C. implied consent will allow you to treat the patient.  
  D. medical direction can overrule the patient's decision.  

B

20

Without obtaining her consent, you transport a mentally competent young woman to the hospital because you suspect she is experiencing internal bleeding. This action:
Choose one answer.
  A. is defensible in a court of law.  
  B. constitutes false imprisonment.  
  C. reflects an act of gross negligence.  
  D. is justifiable because of your suspicions.  

B

21

If a volunteer paramedic has signed up to work a shift for an EMS system:
Choose one answer.
  A. he or she does not have a legal obligation to act.  
  B. the Good Samaritan law provides limited immunity.  
  C. he or she must be a third responder on the ambulance.  
  D. he or she is obligated to respond to calls during the shift.  

D

22

You are caring for a 66-year-old man with terminal cancer. He is conscious and alert without evidence of mental incapacitation. You offer him oxygen, but he refuses to accept it, stating “Just let me die with dignity!” You should:
Choose one answer.
  A. tell him that the oxygen is crucial in preventing him from experiencing cardiac arrest.  
  B. respect the patient's wishes and ask him if he wants to be transported to the hospital.  
  C. contact medical control and request permission to treat without the patient's consent.  
  D. recognize that patients with terminal illnesses do not have decision-making capacity.  

B

23

A 77-year-old man with end-stage COPD and renal failure is found unresponsive by his daughter. Your assessment reveals that the patient is apneic and pulseless. The daughter presents you with an out-of-hospital DNR order; however, the document expired 3 months ago. You should:
Choose one answer.
  A. begin CPR only and contact medical control for further guidance.  
  B. realize that the patient cannot be resuscitated and notify the coroner.  
  C. begin full resuscitative efforts because the DNR order is no longer valid.  
  D. confirm that the order has expired before initiating any patient treatment.  

A

24

The surrogate decision maker:
Choose one answer.
  A. must be an immediate family member of the patient.  
  B. is legally obligated to make decisions as the patient would want.  
  C. must recertify his or her decision-making status every 10 years  
  D. can make decisions for a patient who has decision-making capacity. 

B

25

Which of the following is addressed in the EMTALA?
Choose one answer.
  A. Discouraging private individuals from suing if a hospital has violated the law  
  B. Allowing a woman who is in active labor to be transported to a distant hospital  
  C. Requiring EMS to transport all patients to the closest medical treatment facility  
  D. Preventing medical facilities from denying medical screening and stabilization 

D

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