Lectures knee, ankle and foot Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lectures knee, ankle and foot Deck (142)
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1

Are the cruciate ligament of the knee inside the synovium

cruciate ligaments are extrasynovial

2

what is the angle of inclination of the hip?

120-125 deg

3

What is the normal valgus of the knee?

190 deg or about 7 deg depending on how you measure it

4

what is the angle of torsion at hip?

15 degrees

5

coxa valga

-predisposes pt. to Genu Varus

resulting in increased compression of the medial knee compartment and possible stretch laterally

6

Coxa Vara

predisposes pt to genu valgus

- resulting in increased compression laterally and more tensile forces medially

7

anteversion can cause...

increased anteversion can cause increased internal rotation at the femur

-this may result in squinting patellae

toe in

8

retroversion can cause

increased external rotation of the femur

-this may result in frog-eyed patellae

toe out

9

Plicae

remnants of underdeveloped synovium. can get trapped or irritated by femoral movement (plica syndrome)

10

Lateral compartment of the knee

anterior 1/3

lateral extension of quadriceps tendon

11

Lateral compartment of the knee
middle 1/3

IT Band

12

Lateral compartment of the knee
Posterior 1/3

Arcuate complex: Fabella, fabellofibular ligt., fibular collateral ligt., popliteus tendon

Dynamic reinforcement from biceps femoris, popliteus and lateral head of gastrocnemius

13

LCL

primary restraint limiting lateral gapping (varus force)

25 deg really stressing LCL

14

Medial compartment of the knee
anterior 1/3

deep capsule, medial retinaculum

15

Medial compartment of the knee
Middle 1/3

MCL, Vastus medialis, semimembranosus

16

Medial compartment of the knee
posterior 1/3

Post oblique ligt., semimembranosus

17

MCL

is the primary restraint against valgus force
25 deg really stressing

18

difference in menisci
medial vs lateral

lateral is oval and medial meniscus is C-shaped

-wedge shaped in side view
both are attached by coronary ligts., to deep capsule

outer 1/3 is vascularized and inner 2/3 avascular

19

what is the function of menisci

-Aid in lubrication and nutrition
-Act as shock abdorbers
-Improve joint congruency
-Improve weight distribution
-reduce friction during movt.
-help prevent hyperextension

20

Medial Meniscus

-Attached anteriorly by the meniscopatellar ligt. to quadriceps femoris
-**Less mobile , more prone to injury
-Attached posteriorly to the semimembranosus
-Depending on extension or flexion, medial meniscus is pulled anteriorly or posteriorly

21

Lateral Meniscus

-More mobile, less prone to injury
-Has attachments to menoscopatellar ligt. anteriorly

-Posteriorly attached to popliteus tendon
- Lat. meniscus also moves with active extension and flexion

22

Cruciate ligaments

-Cross the center of the tibiofemoral joint
- stabilize the knee in several planes

23

Anterior Cruciate ligament

Courses Superiorly, laterally and posteriorly from tibia to femur (SLP)

limits anterior tibial translation and hyperextension

-maximally tensed at full knee extension

assists with resisting varus and valgus fores

24

Posterior Cruciate ligament

Twice as strong and thicker than ACL

-Sourses superior, anteriorly, and medially from tibia to femur (SAM)

-Prevents post. tibial translation

-Helps collateral ligts. resist varus and valgus force

25

Where is the tibial nerve likely entrapped?

-Fibrous arch in Soleus

26

Where is the common Peroneal entrapped?

-Head or neck of fibula

27

Where id the infrapatellar br of Saphenous N entrapped?

Pes anserine insertion of sartorius

28

What movement load the patellar the most and provoke pain in PFJ?

squatting- 7 times body weight
going down stairs- 3.5 body weight
going up stairs- 2.5
walking- 0.3

29

superior Tibiofubular joint

-Plane synovial joint
- Movement occurs here in conjunction with motion at the ankle

-in 10% of population the knee joint capsule is cont. with tibiofemoral joint capsule

30

what is resting position of tibiofemoral joint

25 deg of flexion

- where we do joint mob and accessory mobility