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baby day summary

gail only uses under 18 months as otherwise they realise when they are being laughed at etc = upset
5 month old
object permament tasks = failed, but showed how hard it was to run as found mic for example more interesting
started child care young = no fear of strangers
currently interested in other kids (cousins her age) but no interactions yet
dogs in the home
rolling = need for baby proofing, but can now chose what toy to play with
exposing to hebrew but mum and dad not bilingual
exploration of everything in her mouth
association of music with sleep


emotional development includes

experiencing, managing and expressing emotions


the effects of social media

cannot restrict in older kids
what are the consequences for younger kids
social comparisons = more self-conscious
eg gail daughter all friends are always having so much fun
broader exposure to stuff = mixed bag
competing for parents attention
dangers of attention seeking behaviour


early milestones in emotional development
-positive emotions

by 2 months - smiling after controlling events
by 3 months - social smile
by 7 months - mostly smile at familiar people
smiling increases during first year of life


early milestones in emotional development
-negative emotions

first month - general distress only
around 7/8 months
-stranger anxiety (peaks around age 2)
-separation anxiety (don' get this if put in child care at an earlier age)
shots research - some scream alot but no cortisol reaction


social referencing

using others for clues about how to feel / act in certain situations
(shot example should maybe go here)
by 12 months show wariness when caregiver acts afraid


social referencing video

visual cliff experiment
baby crawl to drop, mum looks scared, baby backs off
mum now smile = baby tries to cross gap


events that elicit social referencing

bday parties
minor injuries
insects - potential for how phobias spread
also basis for hypochondria
social influence - parent is afraid of something, baby too
little distinction though is shoen between smile and neutral so fear drives behaviour more


when does self-awareness occur

18 months
show mirror self-recognition
reason why get more difficutl after this - aka terrible 2s
want to dress themself but cant etc


video for developing self-awareness

spot of lipstick on 9 month old nose
in mirror girl looks but not familiar - so wont wipe lipstick off herself
18 month knows it is her in the mirror so knows to wipe the lipstick off her nose


what else occurs around 18 months

concern with standards
-upset if shirt has missing button or something is dirty
-doing things by self
self-conscious emotions occur
-pride (self-first)
-embarrasment (start to show when centre of attention)
-guilt (associated with empathy for others, desire to undo behaviour)
shame (focus on self, feel like hiding)


cultural influences on children - in a collectivits culture

pride discouraged for individual achievement
-related to strong modesty normms
parents promote shame and guilt for not fulfilling social obligations
instead pride in the group


modesty video con li

poem wll kids learn
permissible white lies in asia / collectivist
modesty lie - should not take credit / tell truth, should lie and hide it
modesty lie study in china
p1 = story about a little girl who tidies up trash in school yard, headteacher asks if she did it, girl = no. little girl shown this story = good isn't a lie or the truth is something else
P2 little girl cleans up herself (unprompted), headmistress asks who cleaned it, little girl = don't know and if asked if it was her replies no
ran in toronto, P2 girl doen't offer help, P1 = very bad to lie, parent says it is important to get recognition for what she did


chinese exception to modesty

are allowed to show off but only in the context of offering to help


featured article - understanding surprise

can young children use probability in their inferences about surprise
ages 4-7yo
exp 2 - gumball machines - one mainly red and the other mainly blue
which girl is surprised
7yo get right, 6 no better than chance. but if 6yo prompted (social scaffolding) then right
result only (two prompts, belief = girl think vs probability = which colour does the girl have a chance of getting)
probability (not belief) prompt led most children to get this correct (is an example of scaffolding)


what is tempermament

bio based individual differences
-fearful distress/ inhibition
-irritable distress
-attention span and persistence
-activity level
-positive affect / approach


tempermament and parenting

bad tempermament = needs better parenting to overcome, but able to overcome
good tempermement = less susceptible to parenting, way more liekly to be just good naturaly


tempermament findings

MZ = more similar than DZ
can predict behaviour problems
-high levels of fearful inhibition and anxiety
-lack of fearful inhibition and conduct disorders
can lead to different environmental influences
-so what looks like parenting effects = tempermament


how infants try to manage their emotions

seek out support
rething meaning of event



one of the biggest factors associated with depression
being with other people can make it worse
give depressed person who is ruminating a really boring task to do = become less depressed as ruminating thoughts blocked (task distracts them from rumination)


strategies for expressing emotions

minimization - when really angry, act irritated
maximization - act more tired to try avoid work
masking - show poker face
substitution - feel anxious, look happy


ability to hide emotions by age...
how was it shown

children given dissapointed presents
some could mask their dissapointment - lots of variation, may be some gender differences (girls better than boys)
control - get parents to ask kid the truth (to double check kide doesn't love the shit present)


socialization of emotion management

see others do
see what others get approval and disapproval for - includes gossip
parent child discussion of emotion


control of behaviour video

3yo jacob
mean monkey always choses the sticker you want
does jacob learn to deceive. 3yo = no
4.5yo patrick - knows to lie/ deceive so he can get the sticker he wants


delay of gratification video

marshmallow task
ability to wait = predictor of happiness, popularity, SAT etc
so how do we help our kids develop self-discipline
one = doesn't look at marshmallow
4 ate within a minute
twins - one within 11 seconds, other licked played etc but didn't eat


some more findings of the marshmallow task

predicts long term academic outcomes
children can be taught strategies for delay of gratification - pretend it is just a picture
children won't delay gratification without trust
children wait longer if told teacher will find out


video human capacity for cooperation

child help experimenter trying to pick up paper balls = litte girl picks balls up to help
little boy helped stack tiles
experimenter never thanked children
if kid already helping then reward = helped less
kid who did not have a tendency to help but then helped and got rewarded
little girl left her playing to help. then gives experiemnter advise = you need to be more careful
also she will use knowledge only she has to help pthers = helping or showing off?
note the use of strange contraptions / paradigm to test against knowledge / experience kid may already have


research application - how can we promote prosocial tendencies and reduce antisocial tendencies

work together to achieve common goal
help children infer what they can do
eg teacher makes fun of child making a mistake = socialises that to be a correct response



infants form emotional connections with specific people
normally mum first then dad pretty quickly after


bowlby view

infant has inborn attachment system
helps protect the child
-child motivated to stay close
-crying and smiling bring caregiver closer
response to long term separation
-at first protest, then despair (self-comfort), detachment (emotionally unresponsive, avoid new attachment)
not true for all kids, but true for most
political problem - long term separation