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what did Piaget believe about child development

rejected nature vs nurture debate
knowledge begins with active interaction, starts from the self - motor activity important
we develop a mental picture of the world



build mental maps of the world


sponge metaphor and piaget

children like sponges soaking up info
worng according to piaget - all about integrating new info into the old


explain the world is round example

we create representations of the world connected to out previous knowledge
so teaching earth is round children tend to draw pictures of a circle with people at the bottom and clouds at the top or person stood on a flat pancake
vagueness and confusion over word round
so integrate with what they know / see around them every day


explain driver passenger example

driver has a better mental map of the surroundings than passenger
active construction


why is teahcing difficult

the curse of knowledge
we assume everyone knows what we know


whar are schemas

frameworks for interpreting and responding to experience
can be mental or physical
as we get older we get more abstract schemas (also more mental than physical0
software analogy - what we do with info inputs


example of baby with a book schemas

when young - put in mouth to explore
when older try to read and think


cognitive development and schemas

cognitive development takes place as we try to connect experiences and schemas


what is assimilation

fit observations into existing schema


what is accomodation

change schemas to fit observations


dad points to photo and says that is you to a young child
assimilation view point?
accomodation viewpoint?
(also trusted friend cheating example)

accomodation = develop ways to think about pictures. friend never trustworthy
assimilation = parent is joking, this (physical me) is me. friend was protecting me or some rubbish


belief intrenchment in politics is an example of



making an exception is probably an exmaple of

schema change


name piaget 4 stages of development

concrete operations
formal operations


age of sensorimotor



age of preoperational



age of concrete operations



age of formal operations



overview of sensorimotor stage

knowledge based on motor and senses
baby limited to immediate sensory experiences
sensorimotor experience fosters cognitive development
sensorimotor tables at some preschools eg sand and water play


name the sensorimotor substages

reflex activities
primary circular reactions
secondary circular reactions
coordination of secondary circualr reactions
tertiary circular reactions
cognitive advancements (overlaps into preoperational stage)


reflex activity

0-1 month
baby has reflex schema
-looking, sucking, hearing grasping
-process info
-slowly modified by infant
so reflexes where you take things in from the world, not simple babinski


primary circular reactions

1-4 months
pleasureable response to own body
loop of doing something over and over because you like it
eg sucking fingers and toes, blowing spit bubbles
class video - baby sucking top lip to make a squeaking sound


seconday circular reactions

pleasurable response centered around objects and events in th external world
eg rattles


coordination of secondary ciruclar reactions

8-12 months
combines previously aquired schrmas to reach goal (means end behaviour)
eg will lift cover to find toy
Piaget thinks this shows object permanence
bye bye wave
pulls cloth towards self to reach
imitates action similar to schema
a not b error


piaget and object permanence

pre 8 months babt wont reach for an object they can't see
piaget said this was due to object permanence - baby thinks things only exist when they can see it


video demonstrating object permanence

7 month old fails
toy played with
then put under cover
baby doesn't look or doesn't know where it is
-motor skills not advanced?
-adult took it off so why would baby look?
-cannot be bothere?
not necessatily lack of object permanence
the 9 month old
will lift blanket when toy put under it


A not B error - class video

baby reluctant to give toy back to experimenter
hidden twice on right side
then hidden left
baby goes to the right to find toy
Piaget said because a not b error
or pattern fomring, operant conditioning, habit of the baby


tertiary circular reactions

12-18 months
active experimentation
no a not b error
variations on a theme - not same repetitive behvaiour over and over again
little experimenter stage
eg kid eating will throw things on the floor to see what happens
also learn social aspects of their behaviour - eg what will mum vs dad do if i drop this
cognitive exploration
can be very annoying!


cognitive advancement

seen at end of sensorimotor stage or preoperational stage (18+ months)
child not limited to immediate experience
-delayed imitation
-visual imagery in problem solving
-symbolic play