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1

Greek democracy

-No separation between rulers and ruled
SELF-GOVERNED
-Rotation of officials

2

Why did the Greek democracy failed?

- Ineffective participation of citizens
- Too expensive to maintain
- Policy inconsistency (policies changed frequently) and ineffective government (high turnover rate -> no institutional memory)

3

How many mandates are efficient?

1-3 good period for MPs to have a sense of fairness, justice, etc

4

Modern democracy generally is...?

Representative

5

Democracy ideal French Revolution changed

From directness to representative

6

Difference between sortition and election

- Sortition: participation, equivalence
- Election: consent, distinction

7

Who practically invented elections? (Middle Ages)

Catholic Church

8

Situations of sortition

- Rare for political representatives
- Jury
- Citizen Assemblies

9

What is provided by state formation?

- Bureaucracy (state capacity)
- Territory (sovereignty)
- Public sphere where political debate and decisions can happen (language, identity, etc)

10

What is provided by parliamentarization?

- Limitation of powers (checks and balances, separation of powers)
- Political responsibility -> power only when supported, opposed to Pope that can be elected but not dethroned
- Modern understanding of government as institution
ORIGIN IN REINAISSANCE

11

Governmentalization (Foucault)

Creation of:
- Additional institutions to know whats happening in a state (statistical inst.)
- Class of administrators and functionaries

12

Lord Robert Walpole (parliamentarization)

Most institutional change are the consequence of endogenous forces

13

Parliamentarization around the world

- Growth 1925 - 1950
- Dip after WWII bc of decolonization -> countries took time to organize themselves

14

Milestones of democratization

- Incorporation
- Representation
- Organized opposition

15

Incorporation

Mass of citizens admitted as political actors

16

Representation

Parties can be organized -> division of work within them + effectiveness

17

Organized opposition

Citizens can call for votes against government (the latter has to be responsible)

18

Processes of democratization

- Slow (former monarchies)
- Skyrocketed (fall of Wall of Berlin)
- Following a revolution (3rd wave)

19

First wave of democratization

1826 - 1926: Building of Western democracies

20

Second wave of democratization

1945 - 1950: After WWII and decolonization

21

Third wave of democratization

1974 - Now: Portuguese (Salazar), Spanish (Franco) and Greek revolutions, fall USSR, democratization in decolonized world

22

Lincoln's democracy contradiction

Mikos notes

23

Procedural democracy

- How regime is organized and processes in which representation, accountability and legitimacy are ensured
- Existence of accountability and post-hoc control mechanisms (judicial review, etc)

24

Substantive democracy

- Effectiveness of regime -> promote equality, fairness and inclusion
- Participative concept of democracy
- Discussion and debate enlighten decision and benefit to all (not very inclusive, not everyone can speak up; vote least demanding form of democracy)

25

3 principles of democracy

- Accountability
- Responsiveness
- Majority rule

26

Accountability

BLAMEWORTHINESS decision-makers should be held accountable for their desicions

27

Responsiveness

Preferences of ppl transferred into decision making process

28

Majority rule

Decision should reflect position of majority