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1

What is a social contract?

Agreement to be governed by a set of rules under an organization of power

2

Social contract assuming people are bad

- No society without social contract
- Subject cannot change Gov, Gov is result of sov, sov does anything to preserve peace

3

Commonwealth

- Everyone cedes some individual rights in exchange of others
- Defense and rule of law
SOVEREIGNTY

4

How to avoid slavery in social contract?

Laws: expression of General will and preserve liberties

5

What is distinguished in a social contract?

Difference between sovereign (population) and government (enacts law)

6

Social contract according to Rousseau

Can’t be too large, people who “lose” have to understand the reason

7

Social contract according to Rawls

Justice key element, principles of justice under veil of ignorance

1. Individual has equal rights to the liberties of others
2. Social/economic inequalities have to be solved
3. Offices/positions must be open to everyone

8

What is the veil of ignorance?

Method to determine morality of something

9

What is constitutionalism?

Limitations of power of government

10

What is a constitution

Norms creating, structuring and limiting powers
EVERYONE subject to them (rulers as well)

11

John Locke’s theory

- Humans are bad by nature but capable of altruism
- State to protect property
- Right to revolution (if property isn’t respected)

12

Charles-Louis Secondat theory

- Distinction of gov. branches’ functions
- System of checks and balances

13

James Madison (US constitution)

- Inclusion of civil rights in constitution
- Vertical and horizontal limitation of national government
FEDERALISM

14

Concept of order without sovereignty

- Order comes from different individual’s self interest, leads to common outcome
- “Virtuous” individuals (think of common good) may cause harm

15

Example of order without sovereignty

- Mandeville (virtue prevents capital circulation)
- Smith (invisible hand)

16

Primordialism (identity)

Identity fruit of first socialization, not exchangeable

17

Interactionism (identity)

Identity defined by difference, definition and distance
FRONTIERS

18

Instrumentalist (identity)

Identities created by political entrepreneurs

19

Rational choice (identity)

Identity used (proved) for personal interest

20

What is a national identity

Primoridialist and instrumentalist views

21

Difference between community and society

- Community: emotions, tradition
- Society: made, people feel bad not belonging

22

Ernest Geller on nationalism

- National identity to overcome ancient hierarchies (tribes)
- More egalitarian, mass communication
IMAGINED COMMUNITIES

23

How can emerging modern states use nationalism?

- Fighting over lords and communities
- Economic/social transformations, legitimacy of state control
- Impose social order

24

Ethnic-cultural visión of nation

Historical population, people free to leave community

25

Contractarian vision of nation

Individuals value the state more than their other groups
DAILY PLEBISCITE (Renan)

26

Shortcomings of emerging modern state

1. Specialization
2. Centralization
3. Institutionalization

27

Specialization (modern state shortcoming)

Lack of public force, admin, army

28

Centralization (shortcoming)

Existence of centralized and hierarchical social order

29

Institutionalization (shortcoming)

Transitions have to run smoothly, public authority functions shouldn’t be attached to 1 person

30

Competitors of emerging state

1. Lower lords
2. The Church
3. Guilds, corporations, etc