Lecture 5: Pediatric Anemia Flashcards Preview

Heme/Lymph Exam 1 (EH) > Lecture 5: Pediatric Anemia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 5: Pediatric Anemia Deck (19)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is the effect of anemia on the oxygen dissociation curve, 2,3-DPG concentration with RBC's, pH, and temperature?

- Curve shifts to the RIGHT

- Concentration of 2,3-DPG and temperature ↑↑↑

- ↓ pH

 

2

List 5 clinical signs and symptoms often seen in patients with anemia.

- Pallor

- Sleepiness

- Irritability

- Decreased exercise tolerance

- Flow murmur**

 

3

Which red cell lab value represnts the mean value of the volume of individual RBC's in the sample?

MCV (mean corpuscular volume)

4

Which red cell lab value represents the grams of Hgb per 100mL of RBC's?

MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration)

5

Which red cell lab value represents the average content (mass, weight) of Hgb per RBC?

MCH (mean corpuscular hemoglobin)

6

Which red cell value is used to characterize an anemia as being hypochromic, normochromic, or hyperchromic?

- MCHC: ≤32 g/dL = hypochromic

- MCHC: 33-34 g/dL = normochromic

- MCHC: ≥35 g/dL = hyperchromic

7

Microcytic vs. macrocytic anemias in a pediatric patient is based on an MCV of what percentile for age, race, and sex?

- Microcytic = ≤2.5th percentile

- Macrocytic = ≥97.5th percentile

8

What are the 5 principle features of intravascular hemolysis?

- Anemia

- Hemogloniuria

- Hemoglobinemia

- Hemosiderinuria

- Jaundice

9

What does a low or low-normal number of reticulocytes in pt with anemia indicate?

- Inadequate bone marrow response

- Either relative BM failure or ineffective erythropoiesis (not enough building blocks)

10

At what age do children hit a physiologic nadir for values of hematocrit and hemoglobin?

2 months of life

11

What type of anemia and other lab values will be seen in neonatal immune hemolytic anemia due to ABO or Rh incompatibility?

- Normocytic anemia

- (+) direct coombs test

- ↑ indirect bilirubin

- ↑ reticulocyte count

12

What type of anemia and reticulocyte count will be seen in congenital infection with Parvovirus B19?

Normocytic anemia w/ ↓ reticulocyte count

13

What type of anemia and reticulocyte count will be seen in Diamond-Blackfan syndrome; what is this disorder caused by?

- Macrocytic anemia with ↓ reticulocyte count

- Congenital PURE red cell aplasia resulting from ↑ apoptosis in erythroid precursors

- 30% have other abnormalities; average age of dx is 3-months-old

14

What is the most common inherited form of aplastic anemia?

Fanconi anemia

15

What type of anemia, reticulocyte count, and other lab values are indicative of Fanconi anemia?

- Macrocytic anemia and reticulocytopenia + thrombocytopenia + leukopenia

- ↑ susceptibility of progenitor cells in BM leads to ↑ apoptosis

- Progresses to pancytopenia (may not see sx's until 10 y/o)

16

How is the anemia of iron-deficiency anemia classified and what is the RDW count + peripheral smear findings?

- Microcytic hypochromic anemia w/ ↑ RDW

- Peripheral smear = target cells + hypochromic microcytes

17

What is the Mentzer index and how can it be used to differentiate iron deficiency anemia from beta-thalassemia?

- Mentzer index = MCV/RBC count in millions

- If, >13 = iron deficiency anemia is more likely

- If, <13 = beta-thalassemia is more likely

18

How is the anemia seen with lead poisoning classified and what is seen on peripheral smear?

- Microcytic, hypochromic anemia

- Peripheral smear = basophilic stippling

19

What type of hemolysis is characteristic of G6PD deficiency; inheritance pattern; peripheral smear findings?

- Causes episodic hemolysis

- X-linked recessive

- Heinz bodies and bite cells