Lecture 5: Dural Sinuses, Meninges, and Vasculature Flashcards Preview

Year 1: 05. Neuro Exam 1 > Lecture 5: Dural Sinuses, Meninges, and Vasculature > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 5: Dural Sinuses, Meninges, and Vasculature Deck (40)
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1

What are the three layers of the cranial meninges from superficial to deep?

Dura Mater
Arachnoid Mater
Pia Mater

2

What are the two layers of dura mater?

Periosteal Layer: attached to cranial bones
Meningeal Layer

3

What is the space called between the two layers of the dura mater?

Dural Venous Sinuses (large blood-filled spaces)

4

What are emissary veins?

Veins that drain the scalp into the dural venous sinuses

5

What can infections of the scalp lead to?

Meningitis

6

What are bridging veins?

Veins that drain cerebral cortex into the dural venous sinuses

7

What is the arachnoid composed of?

Arachnoid Trabeculae: Web of collagen and elastic fibers

8

What is the subdural space?

Potential space between arachnoid and dura mater.
In theory, this space should not exist.

9

What can form a subdural space?

1. Bleeding of Bridging Veins
2. Lumbar Punctures

10

What is found in the subarachnoid space?

1. CSF
2. Branches of Internal Carotid Arteries

11

How can aneurysms form in the subarachnoid space?

Low collagen can cause weaker blood vessels, which can lead to higher potential of aneurysms from the ICA branches in the subarachnoid space.

12

Where is pia mater found?

Tightly adheres to brain and follows every contour of the brain surface

13

What is the cranial dural septa?
What is their purpose?

Meningeal layer of Dura Mater extends as flat partitions deep into the cranial cavity.
The septa provides stabilization and support for the brain. It also separates specific parts of the brain.

14

What does the falx cerebri separate?

The two hemispheres of the cerebrum

15

What does the tentorium cerebelli separate?

Cerebellum from Cerebrum

16

What does the falx cerebelli separate?

The two hemispheres of the cerebellum

17

What does the diaphragma sellae cover?

Pituitary Gland

18

What plane is the falx cerebri and falx cerebelli found in?

Sagittal Plane

19

What plane is the tentorium cerebelli found in?

Transverse/Horizontal Plane

20

What are the five dural venous sinuses that are found in the cranial dural septa?

1. Superior Sagittal Sinus
2. Inferior Sagittal Sinus
3. Straight Sinus
4. Sigmoid Sinus
5. Transverse Sinus

21

What is the main artery that supplies the three layers of the cranial meninges?
Where does it branch from?

Middle Meningeal Artery

ECA --> Maxillary Artery --> MMA

22

What are the two branches of the Middle Meningeal Artery?

Frontal and Parietal Branches

23

What cranial nerve provides sensory afferent information to the meninges?

All branches of Cranial Nerve V (Trigeminal Nerve)

24

What causes an epidural hematoma?
What does it look like on an x-ray?

Ruptured Middle Meningeal Artery - can be caused if hit at the pterion
Lens shaped hematoma on side of brain

25

What is a pterion?

Point where temporal bone, parietal bone, sphenoid bone, and frontal bone meet

26

What causes a subdural hematoma?
What does it look like on an x-ray?

Bleeding of bridging veins most commonly seen in babies and the elderly
Crescent shaped hematoma on side of brain

27

What causes a subarachnoid hematoma?
What does it look like on an x-ray?

Ruptured aneurysm from cerebral arteries mostly in post-menopausal women and people with hypertension
Spider like webs in middle of brain

28

Where can the supra-orbital vein, superior ophthalmic vein, and inferior ophthalmic vein drain into?

1. Facial Vein
2. Dural Venous Sinuses via the orbit

29

What does the Sigmoid sinus drain into?

Jugular Vein

30

What structures are in the cavernous sinus?

Internal Carotid Artery
CN III (Oculomotor Nerve)
CN IV (Trochlear Nerve)
CN VI (Abducens Nerve)
CN V1 (Ophthalmic Nerve)
CN V2 (Maxillary Nerve)