What is different about the right and left subclavian / common carotid arteries?
The right Subclavian and Common Carotid Artery come off of an intermediate structure called the Brachiocephalic Trunk.
The left Subclavian Artery and Common Carotid Arteries come directly off of the Aorta
How does the Subclavian Artery supply the trapezius?
via the Thyrocervical Trunk, which has a branch that becomes the Transverse Cervical Artery
How does the Subclavian Artery supply the Latissimus Dorsi?
Subclavian -> Axillary A. -> Subscapular A. --> Thoracodorsal Artery -> Latissimus Dorsi Muscle
How does the Subclavian Artery supply the rhomboid and levator scapulae muscles?
Subclavian Artery --> Dorsal Scapular Artery --> Layer 2 muscles
*can also get supplied by deep branch of Transverse Cervical Artery
Where does the Vertebral Artery travel through?
Transverse foramen of C1-C6
-Can also see it in suboccipital triangle
How does the vertebral artery supply the spinal cord (vertically)?
Anterior Spinal Artery (1)
Posterior Spinal Arteries (2)
What are the 8 paraspinal arterial sources?
1. Vertebral Artery
2. Ascending Cervical A.
4. Deep Cervical A.
4. Posterior Intercostal A.
5. Subcostal A.
6. Lumbar A.
7. Iliolumbar A.
8. Lateral Sacral A.
What are the branches of the Paraspinal Arteries?
Anterior/Posterior Vertebral Canal Branches: runs along the periphery of the interior of the vertebral canal
Anterior/Posterior Radicular Ateries: Do not make it to the Spinal Artery
Anterior/Posterior Segmental Medullary Arteries: Do make it to the Spinal Atery
How does the nucleus pulposus get its blood supply?
Diffusion from the outer part and the vertebral endplates
-Not by a vascular supply
What happens if you injure C1-C3?
What happens if you injure C4-C5?
What happens if you injure C6-C8?
What happens if you injure T1-T9?
What happens if you injure T10-L1?
What happens if you injure L2-L3?
C1-C3: In a coma
C6-C8: Some loss of hand use and lower lody
T1-T9: No lower body movement
T10-L1: Some loss of lower body movement
L2-L3: minor loss of lower body movement
Where are there swellings in the spinal cord, and what are they called?
Cervical Region - Cervical Enlargement
Lumbar Region - Lumbar Enlargement
How many cervical nerves are there?
8 Cervical nerves
Cervical Nerve 1 exits above the Atlas bone
How many Sacral Nerves are there?
5 sacral nerves
How many Coccygeal Nerves are there?
What is the name for the terminal cone of the spinal cord?
What is the Cauda Equina?
A "mess of nerve roots" inferior to the Medullary Cone
Where does CSF circluate in the spinal cord?
The Subarachnoid Space
What do we call the protrusions of Pia Mater into the Subarachnoid Space?
What is the Dural Arachnoid Interface?
The theoretical space between the Dura Mater and the Arachnoid Mater. In reality, these are pressed together by the pressure of the CSF.
What do we call the fat filled space exterior to the Dura Mater?
Why is this clinically relevant?
The Epidural Space
It is the site of Epidural Administration (Anesthetics, contrast dyes, etc)
What is the Lumbar Cistern?
What is its clinical relevance?
The space inferior to the medullary cone where there is a swelling of the Subarachnoid Space for pooling of CSF
It is the site of spinal taps
What two Vertebrae do you go through to perform a spinal tap?
L3/L4 or L4/L5
What feeds into the spinal ganglion/dorsal root ganglion?
Posterior roots (sensory info) and Anterior roots (motor info)
Where is the Spinal Ganglion and what does it do?
On the Dorsal Spinal Root (aka Dorsal Root Ganglion)
-does general sensory information processing
What do the spinal nerves do?
-They exit Vertebral Foramen and immediately split, into Posterior or Anterior Rami (very short)
-Mix of sensory and motor info
What does the Posterior Ramus do?
Innervation of the Intrinsic Muscles of the back
Innervation of the Zygapophyseal joint
Innervation of the skin of the mid-back through the Cutaneous Branches
What does the Anterior Ramus do?
Ex: Brachial Plexus
The Suboccipital Nerve is the Posterior Ramus of what nerve?
C1 Spinal Nerve
The Greater Suboccipital Nerve is the Posterior Ramus of what Spinal Nerve?
C2 Spinal Nerve