Lecture 3: Back Arthrology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 3: Back Arthrology Deck (26)
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1

What are the three major classifications of joints?

Synovial

Fibrous

Cartilaginous

2

What must every Synovial Joint have to be considered as such?

Joint Capsule

Hyaline Cartilage (on both edges)

Synovial Fluid

3

What does a plane joint do?

Permit gliding or sliding movements 

Example: Acromioclavicular joint 

4

What does Hinge/Ginglymus joint do?

Flexion and extension only 

Eg elbow, thumb

5

What does a pivot/trochoid joint do?

Permits rotation

Ex: Twisting of forearm (radius and ulna)

6

What does sellar/saddle joint do?

Allows movement in two different planes 

-false circumduction w/o rotation

-biaxial 

Example: carpometacarpal joint of the thumb

7

What does a condyloid joint do?

Flexion and Extension

Abduction and adduction

Circumduction 

Example: wrist

8

What does a ball and socked/spheriodal joint do?

Flexion and Extension

Abduction and Adduction

Circumduction

Rotation

Example: Shoulder and Hip

9

What are the four types of Fibrous joints?

  • Sutures (Skull)
  • Gomphosis (Tooth in socket)
  • Schindylesis (Tongue in groove)
  • Syndesmosis (Interosseous Membrane of Radioulnar Joint - sheet of fibrous connective tissue)

10

What are the two types of Cartilagenous joints and their characteristics?

Synchondrosis: usually transient - while the bone is growing

 

Symphysis: fibrocartilaginous attachment between bones

Example: Intervertebral Disc

11

What membrane does the Anterior Longitudinal Ligament become superiorly?

The Anterior Atlantooccipital Membrane

12

What does the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament become superiorly?

The Tectorial Membrane

13

What does the Ligamentum Flavum become superiorly?

The Posterior Atlantooccipital Membrane

14

What does the Supraspinous Ligament become superiorly?

The Nuchal Ligament

15

What are the two structures of the intervertebral disk?

Annulus Fibrosis (Fibrous outside)

Nucleus Pulposus (Gooey center)

16

What ligament is often damaged in whiplash?

Anterior Longitudinal Ligament

17

Why do we keep patients who have a fracture of the vertebral column in a position of extension?

Because the Anterior Longitudinal Ligament can act as a splint.

18

Where do disc herniations typically occur?

Why do they occur there?

Typically Nucleus Pulposis ejects into the posteriolateral side of the disc of the lower lumbar vertebrae (L4-L5 especially)

 

Posterior Longitudinal Ligament is narrow so there is no support on either side of it to the back of the disk (posteriolaterally).

Lumbar discs are large so there is more movement that can incite a herniation.

19

For any given two vertebrae of the cervical or lumbar regions, a prolapse will affect which of the two vertebrae's spinal nerve?

(Eg, there is a prolapse of C1 and C2, which nerve is affected?)

The second one.
(C2's spinal nerve will be affected)

20

Atlantooccipital Joint

1. What are the bones involved?

2. What is the joint type?

3. What ligaments are involved?

1. What are the bones involved?

Occipital Bone / Atlas

2. What is the joint type?

Condyloid Synovial

3. What ligaments are involved?

-Anterior Atlantoocipital Membrane

-Posterior Atlantoocipital Membrane

-Tectoral Membrane

 

21

Atlantoaxial Joint

1. What are the bones involved?

2. What is the joint type?

3. What ligaments are involved?

 

1. What are the bones involved?

Atlas and Axis

2. What is the joint type?

Compound Synovial: Trochoid/Pivot & Zygapophysial

3. What ligaments are involved?

-Cruciate Ligaments: Transverse, Superior, Inferior

-Alar Ligaments

-Apical Ligament of the Dens

22

What makes up the cruciate ligament?

Superior Longitudinal Band

Transverse Ligament of Atlas

Inferior Longitudinal Band

23

What structures are involved in the joint of Luschka?

  • Uncinate Process of a vertebra
  • Inferor portion of the vertebral body of the vertebra above

24

Generic Cervical Joint:

1. What are the bones involved?

2. What is the joint type?

3. What ligaments are involved?

1. What are the bones involved?

Cervical Vertebrae

2. What is the joint type?

Compound: Symphysis and Zygapophyseal

3. What ligaments are involved?

-Anterior Longatudinal Ligament

-Posterior Longatudinal Ligament

-Ligamentum Flavum

-Intertransverse Ligaments

-Interspinous Ligament

-Nuchal Ligament

25

Generic Thoracic or Lumbar Joint

1. What are the bones involved?

2. What is the joint type?

3. What ligaments are involved?

1. What are the bones involved?

Thoracic or Lumbar Vertebrae

2. What is the joint type?

Compound: Symphysis and Zygapophyseal

3. What ligaments are involved?

-Anterior Longitudinal Ligaments

-Posterior Longitudinal Ligaments

-Ligamentum Flavum

-Intertransverse Ligaments

-Interspinous Ligaments

-Supraspinous Ligament

26

 Lumbosacral Joint

1. What are the bones involved?

2. What is the joint type?

3. What ligaments are involved?

4. What ligaments are absent from this joint?

1. What are the bones involved?

L5 and sacrum 

2. What is the joint type?

Compound: Symphysis and Planar Synovial 

3. What ligaments are involved?

-Anterior Longitudinal Ligament

-Posterior Longitudinal Ligament

-Ligamentum Flavum

4. What ligaments are absent from this joint?

-Interspinous Ligaments

-Intertransverse Ligaments

-Supraspinous Ligament