Flashcards in Lecture 20: Cognition and Decision Making Deck (35)
Definition of Clinical reasoning?
the cognitive process through which practitioners apply their clinical experience to assess and manage patients’ medical problems.
What are the 2 fundamental approaches to reasoning?
○ Intuitive, or heuristic (i.e., system 1)
○ Analytical (i.e., system 2)
Describe System 1 of reasoning:
- Intuition & instinct
- Unconscious, fast, associative, automatic pilot
- 95% of the time used
Describe System 2 of reasoning:
- Rational thinking
- Takes effort, slow, logical, lazy, indecisive
- 5% of the time used
What are the 4 cognitive biases?
- Confirmation Biases
- Halo effect
- Loss Aversion
- Sunk Cost Fallacy
What is the definition of "tendency to search for and find supporting evidence"?
What is the definition of "tendency to like or dislike everything about a person, place or thing.
“WYSIATI,” what you see is all there is"?
What is the definition of "people work harder to avoid loss than achieve gains"?
What is the definition of "People continue a behaviour or investment because of past
investments of time or money even when continuing is not the best
thing."? E.G., the longer the relationship, the harder it is to break up or
Sunk Cost Fallacy
What are the followings?
- memory learning
- decision making
- and language
Human cognitive processes
How do we make decisions? (2)
- Normative Theories
What is Normative Theories?
define perfect decisions with complete information
What is Rationality?
make decision based on the best available data
What is "The notion that human decision making is limited by the mind's ability, time and available information"?
Bounded rationality helps explain what?
Help explains why professional practice hearings are evaluated against what a normal or typical pharmacist would do.
What is Schema?
Generalized representations of social phenomena based on a shared knowledge about people, events, roles, and objects as stereotypes.
What is Heuristics?
Mental Shortcuts based on available mental representations of the world which can be used to make decision making easier.
What are the 3 types of Heuristics?
- Anchoring and adjustment heuristic
- Availability heuristic
- Representation heuristic
"People estimate the answer based on an initial value
presented to them", is the definition of what?
Anchoring and adjustment heuristic
"People predict the likelihood of something by the ease with which similar instances can be recalled", is the definition of what?
"When people categorize things by considering their similarity to the group/category", is the definition of what?
Using heuristics can lead to the following errors or biases: (6)
- Overconfidence bias
- Base-rate fallacy
- Conjunction fallacy
- The sample size fallacy
- The regression fallacy
- Framing effects
What is Overconfidence Biases?
People tend to overestimate their own abilities including judgements
What is Base-rate Fallacy?
Failure to consider the prior probability of an event when making a judgement.
What is Conjunction fallacy?
The incorrectly assumption that multiple specific conditions are more likely than general ones.
What is Sample Size Fallacy?
Do not take into account the sample size when estimating the rate in a population.
What is Regression Fallacy?
Regression to the mean described how extreme measure are more likely to be average the next time and vice versa. The fallacy is attributing this to something other than chance.
What is Framing Effect?
The explanation, labelling, or arranging of a problem can have on a response to the problem.