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Terrorism Challenges...

traditional notion of offender and victim - offender bad victim good- symbolic


defining terrorism (2) Jenkins 2003 Furedi (2000) and Tucker (1997)

"before we know whether the act falls within the scope of terrorism, we have to know who did it and why they did it" Jenkins 2003- terrorist acts not easily labelled

"if it is not the deeds but the motives that inspired it that turns a particular event into an act of terrorism" - furedi (2009) - motivation crucial in understanding

abandon hope of defining terrorism - tucker 1997

definition problematised by who you are whether or not it is legitimate


Who is the offender?

primary perpetrators
those who directly facilitate them
passive members of the community
who lies beyond
members of the community who didnt do anything - 'suspect communities'


Role of State foreign policy

Lee Rigby- killers stated their actions where because of persecution of their brothers abroad


Theoretical approaches to studying terrorism?
economic approaches-
game theory-

Classicism- benefits outweigh the outcome
rational choice- links to game theory and classicism

Game Theory (Sadler 2002)
explains government interactions
i.e also explains installations of metal detectors so terrorists switch to kidnapping instead of skyjacking..


Theoretical approaches to studying terrorism?
Psychological perspective
-piren (2002)

Piren (2002) individual psychological traits
-low self esteem
-lack of empowerment
-lack of empathy
-paranoid tendencies
-injured narcassim
-preoccupation with power


Thakrah (2004) sociological research

dont reduce terrorist to same pathological reasoning- put a stress on reactions "result of a disturbing relationship with their own identity"


Outcomes of terrorism arrests
September 2001- June 2012

2231 arrests --808 charged
312 under terrorism legislation
187 terrorism related offences
1216 released without charge


Counter Terrorism and Vicimisation

Stop and Search and suspect communities creates victims and brings people into net of CJS who shouldnt be there creates apprehension distrust and hate
motivated by anxiety of terrorist attacks


Victims of terrorism

Who are the victims
-suspect communities
-victims of media campaign

-justice for victims

-wider debates regarding immediate victim versus intended target


Political talk
(Hazel & Blears 2005)

emphasis on Islamic fundamentalism
-ID Cards
-Extension of detention

"Main threat from muslim extremists, means some CT powers will disproportionately affect Muslims. This is the reality of the situation (Hazell and Blears 2005)


Section 44

wherein they could stop and search any vehicle or person, and seize "articles of a kind which could be used in connection with terrorism".[16] Unlike other stop and search powers that the police can use, Section 44 does not require the police to have "reasonable suspicion" that an offence has been committed, to search an individual.[17] Blacks 6x Asians 2x


Pre Charged detention

current 14 days push for longer

justification - more questioning time

liberty- longest pre-charged detention of any type in democracy

- flies in face of democratic principles of justice and fairness - alienates innocent

- disproportionately affects muslims


Hillyards Suspect communities 1993

1974 - Prevention of terrorism Act
- Draconian Reaction to Birmingham bombings - detain 7 days - warnings were sent


Special police powers

- alleged shoot to kill policy
-institutional racism directed at Irish people


Muslim Minorities as Suspect Communities
Pantazis & Pemberton 2009

- comparison to Ireland

- flow of information

hard policing tactics undoes the work of community policing

Spalek (2008) "a sense of grievance amongst muslims was creating barriers to good muslim relations"

Assistant Commissioner Ghaffur (highest muslim officer) hard incidence and others, " drip feeds into vulnerable communities and gradually erodes confidence and trust... the impact of this will be that just at the time when we need the confidence and trust these communities may retreat within themselves"


-hard approaches to the irish conflict - recruitment tool for IRA (Hillyard 1993)

- symbolic injustices, war on terror disproportionately impacted on muslims have caused deep resentment within these communities (P AND P)

-permission to hate

Communities treated as suspect by the police "public encouraged to do the same

Muslim council Board (2005)

- since 2001, islamophobia was increasing becoming acceptable and was already a legitimate form of discrimination"

Poynting and Mason (2006) argue that targeting of specific groups by CT measures offer wider communities pemission to hate these groups and may provide an ideological and moral licence to anti muslim hate crime

BBC (2005)

After 7/7 3 week period religious hate crimes 269 compared to 40 in the same period in 2004


The dual system of Criminal Justice

Stop and Search
ethnic profiling and targeting
extension of pre charged detention
control order- abu hamza
increasing shift towards pre emption- stop it before it happens ( Charles Mendez)


Spalek (2008) CT methodologies and future development

How do you measure success?
-engage radicals
-purpose of CT needs to be defined
-vital for police to have religious and cultural knowledge
-inclusivity - fekete (2004)


Suspect communities
offender - victim
critics of P AND P

Suspect Communities blurs lines between offender and victim
Who is the offender
Who is the Victim - distinction between immediate victim and intended ultimate target
Wider impacts of CT- Public perception

Greer (2010) against p and p " findings suffer from significant analytical, methodological and conceptual, logical, empirical and interpretive errors"