Lecture 1: Triangles of Neck and Larynx (Part 2) Flashcards Preview

Year 1: 05. Neuro Exam 1 > Lecture 1: Triangles of Neck and Larynx (Part 2) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 1: Triangles of Neck and Larynx (Part 2) Deck (49)
Loading flashcards...
1

What important structures are found in the Thoracic Inlet/Outlet?

  • APEX OF LUNGS
  • Subclavian Artery and Vein
  • Brachial Plexus
  • Thoracic Duct
  • Esophagus
  • Trachea

2

What is Thoracic Outlet Syndrome?

Compression of Subclavian Artery, Subclavian Vein or Brachial Plexus (especially inferior portion)

-Can cause loss of hand movement (maybe shoulder and arm)

-Loss of dermatome sensation in C8 and T1

3

How can a pneumothorax happen?

When inserting a central line into the Subclavian Vein, there is a chance the catheter can be threaded into the pleura of the lung, resulting in a pneumothorax.

4

What are the nerve roots for the Cervical Plexus?

C1-C4

5

In the cervical plexus, what do the superficial and deep branches do?

Superficial: Sensory

Deep: Motor

6

What are the nerve roots for the Ansa Cervicalis?

What does it innervate?

Superior Ansa Cervicalis: C1/C2

Inferior Ansa Cervicalis: C2/C3

Innervates strap muscles of neck (infrahyoid muscles)

7

Where is the superior cervical ganglion?

C1/C2

8

Where is the middle cervical ganglion?

C6 at the level of cricoid cartilage

9

Where is the inferior cervical ganglion?

Anterior to transverse process of C7

-Can fuse w/ thoracic ganglion and known as Stellate Ganglion

10

What two structures is the subcutaneous layer between?

Between dermis and investing layer of deep cervical fascia

11

What is found in the subcutaneous layer?

  • Cutaneous Nerves
  • Blood and Lymphatic Vessels
  • Superficial Lymph Nodes
  • Fat
  • Platysma Musle

12

What is found in the investing layer of the deep cervical fascia?

  • SCM and Trapezius Muscles
  • Parotid and Submandibular Glands

13

Why is mumps so painful?

Mumps infect the parotid gland, causing it to swell. However, the investing layer of the deep cervical fascia does not allow the gland to swell, causing a lot of pain.

14

Where is the pretracheal layer of the deep cervical fascia located?

Anterior region of the neck around the thyroid and trachea

15

What is found in the prevertebral layer of the deep cervical fascia?

Encloses the vertebral column and associated muscles

16

What does the prevertebral layer of the deep cervical fascia extend to?

Axillary Sheath

17

Where is the retropharyngeal space?

  • Posterior to pharynx
  • Buccopharyngeal Fascia is anterior
  • Prevertebral fascia is posterior
  • Carotid Sheath is lateral

18

What is the clinical significance of the retropharyngeal space?

The space extends from the base of the skull to the mediastinum. Abscess that develop can cause contiguous spread or infections and the swelling can cause difficulty in swallowing and speaking (can be life threatening).

19

Where is the thyroid located?

  • Deep to sternothyroid and sternohyoid muscles
  • At vertebral levels C5-T1
  • Isthmus anterior to the 2nd and 3rd tracheal rings

20

What are the two main arteries that supply the thyroid?

Where do the arteries come from?

Superior Thyroid Artery from ECA

Inferior Thyroid Artery from Thyrocervical Trunk

21

In 10% of the population, an additional artery can supply the thyroid. What is this artery and what is its clinical significance?

Thyroid Ima Artery (anterior to trachea)

During surgery, have to be careful to avoid hemorrhage

22

Where does the superior and middle thyroid veins drain into?

Internal Jugular Vein

23

Where does the inferior thyroid veins drain into?

Brachiocephalic Vein

24

Where is the recurrent laryngeal nerve on each side of the body?

Right: Around Subclavian Artery

Left: Around Aortic Arch

25

What is the clinical significance of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve?

During surgery or even an MI, the nerve can be damaged leading to hoarseness.

26

Where is the larynx found?

Located at vertebral levels C3-C6

Connected to the pharynx and trachea

27

What does the larynx do?

Phonation and Patent airway

28

Where is the thyroid cartilage located?

C4

29

What is the proper name for Adam's Apple?

Laryngeal Prominence

30

Where is the cricoid cartilage?

C6