Flashcards in Lecture 1 - Essentials of Management Deck (24)
Emphasis on purpose, formal structure, hierarchy of management, technical requirements, common principles of management. Clearly defined goals. Minimal/no consideration of employeee's view.
Human Relations Approach
Attention to social factors at work, groups (formal and sub-groups), appropriate leadership, informal organisation and behaviour of people
Integration of classical and human relations approach. Structure, management and success of organisation dependent on a range of situational variables. Systems have inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes. Systems share feedback. If one part of the system is removed the nature of the system changes eg. car without exhaust. eg. environment of hospital system includes a supra-system (society), systems (healthcare, education, industrial) and sub-systems (nurse, allied health prof.)
People related to Scientific Management Theory
Fredrich Taylor, The Gilbreths, Henry Gnatt
Who is related to Bureaucratic Management Theory
Who is related to Administrative Management Theory
Fayol's Administrative Theory involves what?
Five Elements of Management, 14 Principles of Management. These keep the machine functioning effectively and efficiently. Any part or process that does not contribute to objectives must be replaced quickly.
Scientific Management is also known as what?
strict control, regulation, supervision. Productivity achieved by direct and continuous managerial control.
How does Taylorism view employees?
recalcitrant (obstinately uncooperative)
Principles of Taylorism
-true science of each person's work (scientific analysis of work process)
- monetary incentives main motivator for higher productivity
-scientific selection, training + development of workers
-division of work and responsibility between managers and workers
Criticisms of Taylorism
-maximum earnings seen as main motivator of success, may not be true ie. altruism
- fails to consider subjective side of work especially social interaction
- fails to appreciate worker reactions to new procedures and close supervision.
- too simplistic regarding productivity + morale especially regarding fatigue.
Features of Bureaucratic Management
Specialisation, authority hierarchy, system of rules, impersonality, meticulous record keeping
Fundamental principles of Classical Theory
personal goal setting, management by objectives (MBO)
What does Classical Theory's "one best way" mean
bench marking, standardisation, evidence-based practice
Classical theory incentives
pay bonus/performance related pay eg.commission
Limitations of Classical Theory
- Not evidenced - intellectual theory not result of empirical work.
- Treats men as machines - no social aspects
- Overemphasis on rules and procedures not relevant to modern, lean, adaptable organisations.
What is Contingency Theory?
Managers must consider all aspects of a situation an use leadership style best suited for that situation
What were the Hawthorne Studies?
Western Electric Company (1924-32) by Elton Mays
study recognised that informal organisation and group norms influence worker behaviour. Individuals have psychological and social needs.
What is the "Hawthorne effect"?
awareness of being studied may affect behaviour of participants/workers
Criticisms of Human Relations Theory
14 Principles of Management
1. Division of work
2. Authority and Responsibility
4. Unity of Command
5. Unity of Direction
6. Subordination of individual interest to general interest
7. Remuneration of Personnel
9. Scalar chain/Fayol's bridge
12. Stability of tenure of personnel (sufficient time for familiarity with role and organisation)
13. Initiative of workers
14. Espirit de corps
What does "Espirit de corps" mean?
"union is strength" or "loyal members"