Lecture 1 - Essentials of Management Flashcards Preview

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Classical Approach

Emphasis on purpose, formal structure, hierarchy of management, technical requirements, common principles of management. Clearly defined goals. Minimal/no consideration of employeee's view.


Human Relations Approach

Attention to social factors at work, groups (formal and sub-groups), appropriate leadership, informal organisation and behaviour of people


Systems Approach

Integration of classical and human relations approach. Structure, management and success of organisation dependent on a range of situational variables. Systems have inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes. Systems share feedback. If one part of the system is removed the nature of the system changes eg. car without exhaust. eg. environment of hospital system includes a supra-system (society), systems (healthcare, education, industrial) and sub-systems (nurse, allied health prof.)


People related to Scientific Management Theory

Fredrich Taylor, The Gilbreths, Henry Gnatt


Who is related to Bureaucratic Management Theory

Max Weber


Who is related to Administrative Management Theory

Henri Fayol


Fayol's Administrative Theory involves what?

Five Elements of Management, 14 Principles of Management. These keep the machine functioning effectively and efficiently. Any part or process that does not contribute to objectives must be replaced quickly.


Scientific Management is also known as what?



Taylorism/Scientific Management

strict control, regulation, supervision. Productivity achieved by direct and continuous managerial control.


How does Taylorism view employees?

recalcitrant (obstinately uncooperative)


Principles of Taylorism

-true science of each person's work (scientific analysis of work process)
- monetary incentives main motivator for higher productivity
- hierarchy
-scientific selection, training + development of workers
-division of work and responsibility between managers and workers


Criticisms of Taylorism

-maximum earnings seen as main motivator of success, may not be true ie. altruism
- fails to consider subjective side of work especially social interaction
- fails to appreciate worker reactions to new procedures and close supervision.
- too simplistic regarding productivity + morale especially regarding fatigue.


Features of Bureaucratic Management

Specialisation, authority hierarchy, system of rules, impersonality, meticulous record keeping


Fundamental principles of Classical Theory

personal goal setting, management by objectives (MBO)


What does Classical Theory's "one best way" mean

bench marking, standardisation, evidence-based practice


Classical theory incentives

pay bonus/performance related pay eg.commission


Limitations of Classical Theory

- Not evidenced - intellectual theory not result of empirical work.
- Treats men as machines - no social aspects
- Overemphasis on rules and procedures not relevant to modern, lean, adaptable organisations.


What is Contingency Theory?

Managers must consider all aspects of a situation an use leadership style best suited for that situation


What were the Hawthorne Studies?

Western Electric Company (1924-32) by Elton Mays
study recognised that informal organisation and group norms influence worker behaviour. Individuals have psychological and social needs.


What is the "Hawthorne effect"?

awareness of being studied may affect behaviour of participants/workers


Criticisms of Human Relations Theory

"Hawthorne effect"


14 Principles of Management

1. Division of work
2. Authority and Responsibility
3. Discipline
4. Unity of Command
5. Unity of Direction
6. Subordination of individual interest to general interest
7. Remuneration of Personnel
8. Centralisation
9. Scalar chain/Fayol's bridge
10. Order
11. Equity
12. Stability of tenure of personnel (sufficient time for familiarity with role and organisation)
13. Initiative of workers
14. Espirit de corps


What does "Espirit de corps" mean?

"union is strength" or "loyal members"


What is the scalar chain/ fayol's bridge

One of Fayol's 14 Principles of Management - refers to the chain of supervisors from top to bottom of an organisation