Info. most likely to be trans from STM to LTM when elaborative rehersal is employed
When new info. is made more meaningful by relating it to existing knowledge stored in LTM.
This type of rehersal is more effective in terms of retention & recall.
Refers to rote repetion & is not very effective
Mnemonic Devices (Method of Loci, Keyword Method, Acronym, Acrostic)
Mnemonic devices are formal strategies for improving memory.
- The Method of Loci: is a mnemonic that employs imagery in which items to be remembered are mentally placed, one by one, in pre-memorized (familiar) locations; and recall involves mentally "walking through" the location and retrieving the items.
- Keyword Method: is another imagery technique and is useful for paired associate tasks in which two words must be linked.
Acronyms & Acrostics are verbal mnemonics that are both useful for memorizing a list of words or phrases.
- Acronym: is a word that's formed using the first letter of each item
- Acrostic: is a phrase or rhyme that is constructed from the first letter of each word.
The Yerkes-Dodson law predicts that moderate levels of arousal are associated with optimal learning and performance so that the relationship between arousal and learning takes the shape of an inverted-U.
Arbitrary inference (Beck) is a cognitive distortion that involves drawing a conclusion that is made in the absence of supporting evidence or in the presence of contradictory evidence.
Personalization a cognitive distortion that involves mistakenly viewing oneself as the source of an event that actually had another cause.
“Mustabatory thinking” (Ellis) and refers to the belief that certain conditions must be met. Ex: “I must be liked by everyone; if not, I’m a terrible person.”
Type of Aversive counterconditioning that is used to eliminate an undesirable behavior that prod. a pleasant or positive response (e.g., sexual arousal) by pairing stimuli assoc. w/that behavior w/stimuli that prod. an unplesant response.
By doing so, the plesant response is replaced by the unplesant response & the behavior is reduced or eliminated.
To eliminate the undesirable behavior the indiv. imagines an unplesant (aversive) consequence while imagining that s/he is engaging in the behavior.
Distributed Practice for Learning New Material
Distributing study time over several study sessions results in better retention.
Massed Practice for Learning New Material
Studying all material in a single study session reduces retention.
(Behavioral Technique) "Contingency" refers to the consequences of a behavior, and contingency management involves identifying & applying punishment for undesirable behaviors & identifying & applying reinforcements for desirable ones.
ID alt. behaviors to replace targeted undesirable behaviors.
Occurs when a neutral stimulus elicits a response due to the accidental pairing of the stimulus w/another stimulus that evokes that response or when repeated exposure to a US increases the likelihood that the indiv. will respond to a neutral stimulus w/a response similar to the UR.
Refers to the ability to recall info. from long-term memory when given the appropriate cues.
The coincidental assoc. of a response w/reinforcement.
Skinner found that whatever response pigeons happened to be making before food was delivered to them caused them to engage in compulsive repitition of that response.
- He concluded that the accidental pairing of a response w/reinforcement can explain the acquisition of superstitious behaviors in humans.
Use of which of the following provided Broadbent (1958) with support for his filter theory of attention?
A. dismantling strategy
B. Stroop test
C. dichotic listening task
D. speeded-target monitoring task
C. dichotic listening task
Broadbent (1958) argued that info. from all of the stimuli presented at any given time enters a sensory buffer. 1 of the inputs is then selected on the basis of its physical characteristics for further processing by being allowed to pass through a filter. Bc we have only a limited capacity to process info., this filter is designed to prevent the info.-processing system from becoming overloaded. The inputs not initially selected by the filter remain briefly in the sensory buffer, and if they are not processed they decay rapidly.
Broadbent's filter theory was the first of the "bottleneck" theories of attention.
Broadbent wanted to see how people were able to focus their attention (selectively attend), and to do this he deliberately overloaded them with stimuli - they had too many signals, too much information to process at the same time.
One of the ways Broadbent achieved this was by simultaneously sending one message (a 3-digit number) to a person's right ear and a different message (a different 3-digit number) to their left ear. Participants were asked to listen to both messages at the same time and repeat what they heard. This is known as a 'dichotic listening task'.
Support for Broadbent's theory was provided by research using the dichotic listening task in which participants listened to speech sounds presented to each ear simultaneously.
Broadbent concluded that we can pay attention to only one channel at a time - so his is a single channel model.
In the dichotic listening task each ear is a channel. We can listen either to the R ear (that's one channel) or the L ear (that's another channel). Broadbent also discovered that it is difficult to switch channels more than twice a second. So you can only pay attention to the message in one ear at a time - the message in the other ear is lost, though you may be able to repeat back a few items from the unattended ear. This could be explained by the short-term memory store which holds onto information in the unattended ear for a short time.