Flashcards in Learning and Development - Part 2 Deck (94)
Emotions in infants
- Babies express basic emotions of interest, sadness, disgust, and distress soon after birth
- 18-24 months: self-conscious emotions of jealousy, empathy, disgust, and distress, embarrassment.
What does Patterson attribute high levels of aggressiveness in children to?
- Coercive interactions between children and their parents and poor monitoring of children's activities.
What model of training did Patterson at. al. come up with to teach parents effective parenting skills?
Parenting Management Training (Oregon) PTMO
Which Social Cognitive factor has aggressive behavior also been linked to?
Hostility Attribution - the tendency to interpret the positive or ambiguous actions of others as intentionally hostile
Difference between Heteronomous stages of morality
Autonomous stages of morality?? PIAGET
(Moral Development Theory)-
Heteronomous- judgements are based primarily on the act's consequences
- Autonomous- judgements based on intentions of person acting
Kohlberg's Cognitive Developmental Theory (of Moral Development)
Predicts a universal, invariant sequence of 3 levels (Pre-Conventional , Conventional, Post-Conventional)
Describe Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
-Moral judgments based on desire to avoid punishment or receive rewards
- Judgements contingent on social approval or rules, laws
-Moral judgments based on Democratically-Determined Laws or Universal Ethical Principals
Who criticized Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development?
Gilligan, who said it applied more to males who focus on justice on individual rights than to females who focus more on caring and responsibility to others.
Risk factors of divorce for women
- marry at a young age
- low level of education
- no religious affiliation
- mixed-ethnic relationship
- single parent home
- have experienced rap
- have child within 7 mos
- co-habitated with partner before marriage
Gottesman and Levenson identified which 2 interaction patterns that are predictive of divorce?
- Emotionally volatile, attack-demand
- Inexpressive (later divorce)
Describe some post-divorce facts about mothers and consequences on children
- Custodial mothers are often less warm and loving toward their children and are less consistent but more authoritarian w/regard to punishment
- Effects most profound during the first year after divorce (specific consequences related to age and gender)
- Preschoolers of divorcing parents show the most distress immediately, while 6-8 year-olds show long-term negative consequences
- Immediate consequences of divorce are worse for male children, while there may be a SLEEPER EFFECT for females, who could develop problems in adolescence.
- Middle childhood- closeness, cooperation/competition,
- Increased rivalry in middle school
- less intensity, more distant, and more egalitarianism in adolescence
Effects of Maternal Employment
- Benefits outweigh costs
- in low SES fams, higher achievement/cog devl scores in boys
- in high SES fams, lower achievement/cog devl scores in boys
Effects of Rejection by Peers in Children
- increased negative outcomes, even when social group changed
The Importance of PLAY
- essential for development
- Dramatic/Imaginative = symbols, imitation, problem solving
- Non-social play = unoccupied, onlooker, solitary
- Social play = parallel, associative, and cooperative
What is the Buffering Hypothesis?
Research shows that an individual's perception of social support is more critical than actual support for alleviating feelings of loneliness and reducing effects of stress.
When does peer pressure to conform peak?
About age 14-15; when these younger teens are responsive to all types of peer influence- neutral, positive, and negative.
What is Carstensen's socio-emotional selectivity theory?
(Social relationships in adulthood)
It predicts that social motives correspond to perceptions of time left in life as being limited or unlimited.
Self-fulfilling Prophecy (Rosenthal Effect)
Rosenthal and Jacobson, regarding teacher expectations about student achievement.
What does research on teacher feedback to students show?
That teacher feedback is related to a child's gender. Girls more likely than boys to view their failures as a result of a lack of ability.
Negative Relief State Model
In the Negative State Relief model, helping behaviors are motivated by one’s egoistic desires.
In an Ainsworth Strange Situation, a child ignores the mother when she leaves and upon return. The mother is most likely:
Impatient or over-stimulating
Effects of maternal depression on infant development
Higher risk for pathology and may show symptoms of disturbance when they are as little as 3 months old
Who are the most likely perpetrators of child abuse?
The child's parent
Adult Attachment Interview - 3 Categories
"Dismissing"- describe parents in positive terms without offering evidence to back it up
"Pre-occupied"- Confused, angry, passively preoccupied
"Unresolved/Disorganized"- Unresolved experience due to loss or abuse; usually used in conjuncion with the other 3.
Reinforcing desired behavior and IGNORING undesired behavior
Negative Reinforcement example
Restrictions are removed each time a child does a chore
Working memory is effected by aging. This is primarily due to what?
Decline in executive function
What test is NOT considered a fair test of intellectual ability?
Woodcock Johnson III