Lab #2. Histology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab #2. Histology Deck (34)
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What type of tissue can be found here? what organ might this be?

Epithelial -simple columnar

Connective tissue

Smooth muscle tissue 

The stomach 40X


Thick skin 10X


Jejunum 10X what type of cells are found here? 

epithelial = simple collumnar 

smooth muscle

connective tissue


thick skin 40X what cells are found here? 


Jejunum 40 X


colon 10X


thin skin 10 X


stomach 10 X


skeletal muscle 40X


cardiac muscle 40X


What is this what cells are found here?

spinal cord X10 -Neurons 


spinal cord 40X


What is histogenesis? 

The differentiation of cells into specialized tissues and organs during growth 


What are the main components of ECM (extracellular matrix)?

  1. water
  2. proteins

a) glycoproteins 

    3. proteoglycans


What is the function of a fibroblast? in which tissue is it found?

fibroblasts are cells responsible for the sysnthesis of ECM components (they produce collagen) found in larger numbers in connective tissue (involved in wound healing)


What are proteoglycans? what do they do? what cell produces them? give an example.

Proteoglycans are found in the ECM.  They absorb water which provides lubrication and resiliency.  They are nature's shock absorbers for your joints.  They are produced by the chondrocytes.  EX: chondroitin sulfate, heparin, and hyaluronic acid 




What are the main types of tissues?

  1. Epithelial tissue
  2. Connective tissue 
  3. Muscle tissue
  4. Nervous tissue


What are the types of epithelial tissues??

  1. covering or lining epithelium
  2. glandular epithelium 


what is the difference between exocrine and endocrine glands? give an example of each.

Exocrine glands discharge secretions into ducts 

ex:salivary or sweat glands

Endocrine glands are "ductless" glands, they discharge secretions directly into the blood or interstitial fluid 

ex: thymus, adrenal, etc



What are the types of glandular epithelium?? give an example where they are found.

  1. Apocrine - product pinches off and is released by apex - ex: mammary glands, goblet cells, etc
  2. Holocrine- product collects in the cell and when it is released the plasma membrane ruptures- ex: sebaceous glands
  3. Merocrine (or eccrine): secreted product through plasma membrane - ex: salivary glands, sweat glands



What are the characteristics that all epithelial tissue share?

  1. It is made up of many cells close to each other and there is very little ECM between cells

  2. they are united to adjacent cells by junctions (gap, tight and desmosomes)

  3. *all have one free surface called the apical surface and one lower surface called the basal surface

  4. *the basal surface rests on a basement membrane, a non living adhesive material secreted by the epithelium 

  5. *they are avascular meaning they lack blood vessels

  6. *they are characterized by frequent cell division 

    ***With the exception of endocrine glands*** 


What are the Crypts of Lieberkühn? where are they found?

they are glands which secrete various enzymes into the small intestine. 


What are the types of cell shapes for epithelial tissue? give and example of where each is found?

  1. Squamous (flattened) 

    a) simple -alveoli of lungs, blood vessels

b) stratified - skin, mouth

     2. Cuboidal 


a) simple - ovaries, kidneys

b) stratified -mammary glands, sweat glands 

    3. Columnar

a) simple - intestines, uterus

b) stratified - Vas deferens, urethra (male)

    4. Pseudostratified - trachea, fallopian tubes

    5. Transitional - bladder



What are the types of connective tissue? what are the functions of these?

  1. Fibrous - stretch, pulling/pushing force
  2. Cartilage - cushioning and support
  3. Adipose - insulation and cushioning
  4. Bone - support + protection
  5. Blood - transport 


What are the types of cartilage? where is it found?

  1. Elastic - ear + epiglottis
  2. Fibrocartilage - symphysis pubis joint
  3. Hyaline - trachea + joints





What are Lacunae? 

Lacunae are small holes that contain a chondrocyte in cartilage or an osteocyte in bone


What give cartilage it's shiny appearance? 

Hyaluronic acid 


What are the types of bone? 

  1. Compact bone
  2. Spongy bone


 Name the structures in this tissue. what kind of tissue is this?


1. Haversian canal 
2. Canaliculi 
3. Lamellae 
4. Lacunae 

Connective tissue - compact bone


What is blood made of? 

  1. Liquid fraction = plasma 
  2. Platelets
  3. RBCs or erythrocytes
  4. WBCs or leukocytes