Lab #1. Rat Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab #1. Rat Anatomy Deck (57)
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______ attaches muscle to bones



______ is the end of the muscle attached to the bone that does NOT move.



______ is the end of the muscle attached to the bone that DOES move.



What do Extensors do? Give one example.

straighten members such as fingers, arms, etc. (ex: triceps brachii)


What do Flexors do? Give one example.

Bend members such as fingers, arms, etc (ex: biceps brachii)


What do Rotators do?

Turn on their axis (ex: muscles of the neck)


what do Elevators do?

lift or raise parts of structures.


Name the origin, insertion and action of the Biceps Brachii.

Origin: Scapula Insertion: Radius Action: flexes + rotates the forearm


Name the origin, insertion and action of the Triceps Brachii.

Origin: Humerus and Scapula Insertion: Ulna Action: extends the elbow (forearm)


Name the origin, insertion and action of the Biceps Femoris.

O: sacral + caudal vertebrae I: distal end of femur, proximal end of tibia A: extends the hip, knee, ankle


Name the origin, insertion and action of the Tribialis Cranialis.

O: Fibula/ Tibia I: Metatarsals A: flexes ankle


Name the origin, insertion and action of the Gastrocnemius.

O: medial/lateral epicondyle femur I: dorsal surface of tuber calcanei (achilles tendon) A: extends the hind foot


Name the origin, insertion and action of the external obliques.

O: 4th-12th ribs and lumbar fascia I: crest of ilium, pubis, linea alba A:compresses the abdominal region


Name three bones of the leg in the rat? 

1. Tibia (thicker)

2. Fibula (thinner)

3. Femur (thigh)

* and the patella (knee cap)


What are the 4 salivary glands in the rat?? and what are their functions?


  1. Parotid
  2. Mandibular
  3. Sublingual
  4. Submaxillary

Function: Secrete saliva and amylase for breakdown of food.


Identify the rat salivary glands in this picture. 

red pin= Parotid gland

Yellow pin= Sublingual gland

Green pin= Submaxillary gland


Name three muscle in the arm of the rat?

1. Humerus (upper arm)

2. Ulna (larger)

3. Radius (smaller)


What is the function of the thymus gland? where is it located?

The thymus functions in the development of the immune system. It is where white blood cells mature to become T cells.  It is located just above the heart. 


Why would the omentum be used for primary fat storage in men but not women?

Because men adapted this over time in order to provide protection of the reproductive organs inside. 


why might the use of the hips for fat storage in women be a deceptive secondary sexual characteristic?

Because extra fat is needed around the hip area in order to protect the fetus and is better for child bearing. Part of the signal of having large hips is the implication that they indicate large hip bones and thus a birth canal large enough for a baby's head. If the hips are sufficiently padded with fat, the fat might make narrow hip bones look wide. While a woman with this configuration would likely have enough fat storage to bring a healthy baby to term, she might be unable to deliver it safely.


what are some of the health risks associated with having a fatty omentum? 

Visceral fat is metabolized by the liver and turns it into cholesterol (LDL) which is correlated to diabetes.



explain the negative impact of excess visceral fat on the cardiovascular system?

Excess fat can block insulin from leaving the blood vessels and entering the cells.  This causes the pancrease to produce more insulin in order to compensate and causes it to overwork.  


why is the liver divided into sections? 

To increase surface area and allow more connections to the gallbladder. 


having your gallbladder removed does not have a serious effect upon your digestive abilities even though fat emulsification is very important. why is that?

The gallbladder will not be present to store bile but bile is still produced by the liver and brought directly to the small intestine. Most people who have removed their gallbladder may adopt a less fatty diet to adjust for the change. 


People whose spleens have been removed (splenectomy) are often told to avoid traveling to third-world countries, why is that?

Because the spleen is a major organ of the immune system and without it people are more suscpetible to infectious disease.  


does saliva contain enzymes to break down other food molecules, such as proteins or lipids? explain?

Food doesn't stay in your mouth for very long, and lipids and proteins are pretty complicated molecules and are therefore broken down in the stomach. Producing these enzymes in saliva would be an inconvenient waste of time and energy, since the pH of saliva is not low enough for peptide hydrolysis (digestion of proteins) to take place anyway.


What are some functions of the liver?

  1. produces bile
  2. processes chemicals from the blood (detoxyifies alcohol)
  3. processes waste products from protein metabolism into the less toxic form of Urea
  4. breaks down old RBCs and recycles iron
  5. staging site for WBCs 
  6. temporary stores sugar in the form of glycogen


How is the liver affected by insulin and glucagon?

  • liver stores sugar as glycogen
  • insulin released by the pancreas causes sugar to be absorbed from the blood and stored as glycogen
  • glucagon released by the pancreas causes conversion of glycogen back to sugar and released into the blood


What are the parts of the liver? 

  1. Right & left middle lobes

  2. Left lateral lobe (large + overlaps the stomach)

  3. Right lateral lobe (double lobe overlapping the right kidney)

  4. Caudate lobe (small and folds around esophagus and stomach seen easier if liver is raised)


What are the regions of the stomach? 

  1. cardiac
  2. fundic
  3. pyloric