Flashcards in LA #8 Chapter 12 Deck (21)
Which of the following is the process of selecting representative units of a population for a research investigation?
d. Random assignment
How are population and sample different?
a. A sample can be an object or an event; a population refers to individuals or groups of people.
b. A population has a broad set of defining characteristics, whereas a sample has a narrow set of defining characteristics.
c. A population is a representative segment of a defined sample.
d. A sample is a representative segment of a defined population.
Why should a researcher avoid drawing conclusions or making generalizations based on the experiences of a small number of participants?
a. Small samples invalidate hypotheses.
b. The researcher may be unable to eliminate his or her bias.
c. Data obtained from a small number may represent the phenomenon inadequately.
d. Small samples increase historical threats to internal validity.
Which of the following statements best identifies the sample descriptors that form the basis for eligibility criteria in sample selection?
a. A sample of 1,000 practising nurses in a selected state was surveyed.
b. The sample consisted of 267 Canadian girls and American girls who lived in urban areas in their respective countries.
c. The sample consisted of 40 men between the ages of 20 and 55 who were treated for burn injuries during the past decade at a specialized burn unit.
d. The sample consisted of 57 hospital nurse executives and 178 staff registered nurses employed in Ontario.
Which of the following statements about inclusion and exclusion criteria is true?
a. These criteria are not needed when the sample being studied is composed of events.
b. These criteria serve to ensure that the characteristics of the sample and the population are congruent.
c. Inclusion criteria are used to define independent variables, and exclusion criteria are used to define dependent variables.
d. Inclusion criteria are used to define dependent variables, and exclusion criteria are used to define independent variables.
Which of the following processes or characteristics restricts the population to homogeneous groups of subjects?
c. Eligibility criteria
d. Defining study limitations
What is the difference between an “accessible population” and a “target population”?
a. An accessible population meets inclusion criteria, whereas a target population meets exclusion criteria.
b. A target population meets inclusion criteria, whereas an accessible population meets exclusion criteria.
c. An accessible population represents the entire set of cases the researcher wishes to study, whereas a target population represents that part of the accessible population that could feasibly be included in the study.
d. A target population represents the entire set of cases the researcher wishes to study, whereas an accessible population represents that part of the target population that could feasibly be included in the study.
Which factor or condition of a sample meets the criterion for representativeness?
a. The sample is drawn randomly from the general population without the use of specific criteria.
b. The characteristics of the sample closely resemble the characteristics of the larger target population.
c. The sample includes the same percentage of men and women as well as members of different ethnic groups as the general population does.
d. The subjects selected for the sample have agreed to express the specific opinions or beliefs representative of their ethnic or cultural group.
A sample is considered representative when its characteristics closely resemble those of the general population.
What is the major benefit of nonprobability sampling, as compared with probability sampling?
a. It does not affect generalizability.
b. Informed consent must be obtained.
c. The necessary sample sizes are easier to obtain.
d. Sample sizes are too small for most methods of statistical analysis.
Which of the following sampling strategies has the greatest risk for sample bias?
At a teaching hospital, of the staff of 1,500 nurses, 60% have a college diploma, and 21% have a BScN. The recruitment goal for a study was set at 1,000 nurses, with 600 in the college diploma group, 210 in the BScN group, and 190 from any other type of nursing education. What type of sampling strategy is represented by this research plan?
A study was conducted to determine whether head flattening in preterm infants was prevented by placing their heads on a water pillow. The first 50 preterm infants admitted to a newborn intensive care unit during a specific year were assigned to either a usual care group or a treatment group. What type of sampling strategy is represented by this research plan?
What is the primary characteristic of a probability sample?
a. Self-selection of subjects
b. Random selection of the sample
c. Hand picking of subjects by the researcher
d. Representation of proportional segments of the population
What is the major characteristic of a stratified sample?
a. The sample population is divided into subsets that are homogeneous for a particular trait or feature.
b. The sample population is divided into subsets for random assignment into an intervention group or a usual care group.
c. The sample population is randomly assigned to a specific subgroup that will differ from other groups on the basis of treatment type.
d. The sample population is randomly assigned to a specific subgroup that will differ from other groups on the basis of treatment duration.
What type of sampling strategy is represented when every fourth postsecondary student who registers for a specific course is selected into the treatment group?
a. Cluster sampling
b. Systematic sampling
c. Simple random sampling
d. Stratified random sampling
What is the appropriate sampling interval for drawing a systematic sample of 25 subjects from 200 women who had breast enhancement surgery in the course of a particular year at a specific medical centre?
a. Every fourth patient
b. Every fifth patient
c. Every eighth patient
d. Every tenth patient
What process is employed when a researcher accrues a sample of participants by using the word-of-mouth approach?
What does the technique of matching in a sampling strategy contribute to the research?
a. Improvement of study design
b. Elimination of the need for a control group
c. Increased equivalency of the comparison group
d. Reduction of sample size by making subjects serve as their own controls
How do researchers use the technique of power analysis?
a. To estimate sample size
b. To establish sampling strata
c. To assign subjects randomly
d. To analyze sample representativeness
What question should a research consumer ask when evaluating the sample size in a research report?
a. How many assistants were involved in data collection?
b. How representative is the sample relative to the target population?
c. How great is the outcome difference between or among study groups?
d. How many previous studies has the researcher conducted before on similar topics?