Flashcards in LA#2 - Stanhope Chap 13 Deck (15)
Which of the following areas should be targeted by the community health nurse (CHN) who wishes to successfully establish a program to decrease childhood mortality rates?a.Accidents and injuriesb.Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)c.Childhood obesityd.Vaccine-preventable diseases
AInjuries and accidents are the most common causes of preventable disease, disability, and death among children. Most accidents occur in the home; therefore, measures to promote home safety are important. In Canada, injuries and accidents in children aged 1 to 14 are the leading causes of death. Obesity, although a significant problem, is not a common cause of death in children.
Which of the following is the most important action to be taken by the CHN who wishes to decrease childhood obesity?a.Lobbying legislators to enact stronger legislation regarding unhealthy lunches and food from snack machines in schoolsb.Increasing availability of nutrition programs in which schoolchildren are taught to make healthy food choicesc.Involving the entire family in the management of obesity in a childd.Providing after-school activities and summer camps that focus on diet and exercise
CInterventions need to be based on lifestyle changes for the entire family. The goal is to modify the entire family’s eating patterns, exercise levels, and daily activities. Teaching a child about nutrition, exercise, and a proper diet becomes ineffective if the family’s meals do not also include proper food choices.
Which of the following examples constitutes tertiary prevention by a CHN who wants to promote improved health in obese children?a.Establishing lifestyle improvement programs through local youth organizationsb.Evaluating the food intake of a group of children for a 48-hour periodc.Providing educational programs to overweight prospective parents because they are at greater risk of having overweight childrend.Measuring body mass index in children during regularly scheduled well-child assessments
ATertiary prevention includes activities that are aimed at reducing the complications of the disease process. Examples of tertiary prevention for women with diabetes include intense monitoring of blood glucose levels, modification of diet and medications as indicated, and efforts to prevent long-term complications. Establishing lifestyle improvement programs is directed toward preventing problems in children who are already obese. Evaluating food intake and measuring body mass index are types of screening programs (secondary prevention). Providing educational programs to overweight prospective parents pertains to a future event—the child is not yet born.
Which of the following statements is the best definition of women’s health?a.Women’s health is health care taken in fostering gynecological and reproductive wellness.b.Women’s health is health care that assists the transition from girlhood to womanhood and through menopause.c.Women’s health includes health promotion, health protection, and health maintenance across a woman’s lifespan.d.Women’s health is the management and treatment of conditions unique to the female sex.
CWomen’s health is related to the entire lifespan of women and involves health promotion, health protection, disease prevention, and health maintenance in adult women. This broad emphasis on women’s health contrasts with the view of women’s health solely in terms of their reproductive health or their role as mothers.
Which one of the following examples would constitute secondary prevention by a CHN who wants to promote improved health in obese women?a.Educating women about the risks of obesityb.Preventing long-term complications of pre-existing hypertensionc.Modification of women’s diet and medications, as indicatedd.Screening using a full glucose tolerance test
DSecondary prevention includes screening activities. Screening for diabetes is an example of secondary prevention. Preventing long-term complications of pre-existing hypertension and modification of diet and medications are actions aimed at reducing complications of a disease process (tertiary prevention). Educating women about the risks of obesity falls under primary prevention and includes interventions aimed at educating women about diabetes, nutrition, and the risks of obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity.
Which of the following is the primary determining factor of poor health outcomes in women?a.Feelings of powerlessnessb.Lack of knowledgec.Povertyd.Stress
CIn most parts of the world, women live longer than men but are generally less healthy. This difference in health status is related to poverty.
Which one of the following is the nursing specialty that focuses on holistic care of older adult clients?a.Older adult careb.Geriatricsc.Geripsychiatric nursingd.Gerontological nursing
DGerontological nursing is the specialty of nursing concerned with assessment of the health and functional status of older adults, planning and implementing health care and services to meet the identified needs, and evaluating the effectiveness of such care.
Which referral would be the best recommendation by the CHN for a physically and mentally challenged older adult who wants to continue living with her family but whose family members are all working outside the home?a.Adult daycare servicesb.Home health carec.Long-term cared.Older adult centres
AAdult daycare services are intended for individuals whose mental or physical functioning requires additional health care and supervision. Long-term care would take the client outside of the home. Home health care would leave the client alone for periods of unsupervised time during which the client could encounter problems and not be able to access any services.
According to the Comprehensive School Health Framework of health promotion, which one of the following is the correct definition of primordial prevention?a.Interventions aimed at educating children about health risksb.Preventing risk factors of health issues from ever occurringc.Screening activities aimed at improving student healthd.Activities aimed at reducing the health complications associated with disease
BPrimordial prevention is preventing the risk factors for health issues from ever occurring. The other answer options are definitions of primary, secondary, or tertiary prevention.
Which type of prevention is exemplified by the administration of vaccines to promote child and adolescent health?a.Primary preventionb.Secondary preventionc.Tertiary preventiond.Both primary and secondary prevention
APrimary prevention activities are those activities undertaken to prevent a disease or condition from occurring.
Which one of the following examples constitutes tertiary prevention by a CHN who wants to promote better health in women with diabetes?a.Establishing lifestyle improvement programs for women at risk of developing diabetesb.Including presentations on lifestyle management at women’s conferencesc.Monitoring blood glucose levels closely and recommending necessary diet modificationsd.Screening glucose levels in women at risk for developing diabetes
CTertiary prevention includes activities that are aimed at reducing the complications of the disease process. Examples of tertiary prevention for women with diabetes include intense monitoring of blood glucose levels, modification of diet and medications as indicated, and efforts to prevent long-term complications of diabetes.
Which measure needs to be included in the primary prevention of osteoporosis in women?a.A diet rich in calcium and vitamin Db.Exposure to sunlight for 40 minutes a day, recommended as an alternative source of vitamin Dc.Exercise, especially non–weight-bearing activityd.Weight control
AFor the primary prevention of osteoporosis in women, the following preventive measures need to be included: eating foods high in calcium, taking vitamin D, and being physically active with weight-bearing exercises such as walking and involvement in sports, plus avoidance of smoking and excessive intake of caffeine and alcohol.
The second leading cause of cancer deaths in Canadian women is colorectal cancer. Which of the following options is key to improving long-term survival in women with colorectal cancer?a.Screening and treatmentb.Primary prevention and early detectionc.Providing information and chemotherapyd.Prevention of infections and smoking cessation
BPrimary prevention and early detection are the keys to surviving colorectal cancer. CHNs can inform women of their risks, the signs and symptoms to be aware of, and screening opportunities in their communities.
Testicular cancer is a common solid-tumour malignancy affecting men age 15 to 35. Which one of the following is the most common symptom of testicular cancer?a.Low back painb.Fatiguec.Painless, firm scrotal mass or swellingd.Mild to moderate pressure to the scrotum
CThe most common presenting symptom is a painless, firm scrotal mass or swelling that is discovered by chance. Low back pain may occur with retroperitoneal lymph node involvement.