Flashcards in LA#1 Potter & Perry Chapter 2, Stanhope Chaps 1,2,3,11 Deck (78)
Which one of the following is a reason to study nursing history?a.To fulfill provincial/territorial nursing requirementsb.To help fill up the necessary credit hours for graduationc.To meet accreditation requirementsd.To understand the present and plan for tomorrow
DOne of the best ways to make plans for today and tomorrow is to look at the past to see what did or did not work. Lessons learned through history provide direction for current and future community health nursing practice.
Which of the following makes public health nursing appealing to many nurses?a.The autonomy of practice and independence in decision making it affordsb.Its focus on acute care and immediately visible outcomesc.The backup support of other health care professionalsd.The rapport among the nursing staff
AInpatient acute care nurses focus on acute care where outcomes are known fairly quickly. Part of the appeal of community health nursing is the autonomy of practice and independence in problem solving and decision making it affords, as well as its interdisciplinary nature.
Which group was the first to establish hospitals?a.Feudal lords, to keep their peons workingb.Small towns, to care for their own citizensc.The military, to enable soldiers to keep fightingd.Religious orders, to care for the sick, poor, and neglected
DHistorically, most people were responsible for their own health care services. However, during the Middles Ages, religious convents and monasteries established hospitals to care for the aged, disabled, orphaned, sick, poor, and neglected.
The Industrial Revolution caused earlier caregiving approaches—where care was provided by families, friends, and neighbours—to become inadequate because of constantly increasing demand. Which one of the following situations also contributed to the inadequacy of caregiving approaches at this time?a.Ongoing wars, which caused frequent deaths and injuriesb.Horrific plagues that swept through Europec.Migration and urbanizationd.The need to pay caregivers
COlder forms of care became inadequate because of the social changes in Europe, with great advances in transportation, communication, and other technologies. Increased mobility led to increased demand for health care, migration, and urbanization.
Which one of the following events notably changed health care?a.The creation of the discipline of nursing by Florence Nightingaleb.The formation of sisterhoods by nuns who gave carec.The establishment of the Sisters of Mercy in Dublind.The formation of the Dames de la Charité by Saint Vincent de Paul
AMany innovations in health care led to improvements in care, but Florence Nightingale revolutionized health care by establishing the discipline of nursing.
Eunice Dyke was a public health nursing pioneer in Canada. In which of the following areas did she play a key role at the beginning of the twentieth century?a.Decentralization of public health nursingb.Specialization of public health nursingc.Inclusion of powerful citizens on health department boards to ensure adequate funds to pay for cared.Development of a system for accurate records of births and deaths
AEunice Dyke played a key role in the decentralization of public health nursing in 1914. Before this time, public health nurses (PHNs) had been working in specialized areas of nursing, such as tuberculosis (TB) care, but now they became generalists (though they did not provide bedside nursing care in the home as community health nurses [CHNs] or visiting nurses would).
In what year did the first training school for nurses open in Canada?a.1874b.1894c.1904d.1914
A.The first training school for nurses in Canada opened in 1874, in Ontario.
Which one of the following was a very important factor in the success of early visiting nurses?a.The care they provided that served as a model for all later hospitalsb.The more economical care they provided to familiesc.Their role model, Edna Moored.The superb publicity campaign that was created by the health departments
BVisiting nurses, who provided care wherever the client was located—at home, work, or school—took care of several families in one day (rather than taking care of only one patient or family as the private duty nurse did), which made their care more economical.
Which of the following nurses was instrumental in establishing the first integrated basic nursing degree program in Canada?a.Florence Nightingaleb.Kathleen Russellc.Edna Moored.Lillian Wald
BIn 1920, Kathleen Russell, Director of the Department of Public Health Nursing at the University of Toronto, was instrumental in establishing the first integrated basic degree nursing program, a major milestone in nursing education, including public health nursing education.
Which of the following arguments was used to convince the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company to establish the first community health nursing program for workers in 1909?a.Creating such a service was the morally right thing to do.b.Employing nurses directly would be less expensive than paying taxes to the city to provide nursing services.c.Having the company’s nurses make home visits would increase morale among workers.d.Using PHNs would keep workers healthier, which would increase worker productivity.
DLillian Wald argued that it would be more economical to use the services of a CHN than to employ the company’s own nurses and that keeping workers healthier would increase their productivity.
What has been the main achievement of the Community Health Nurses Association of Canada (CHNAC)?a.Licensed practical nurses (LPNs) as well as registered nurses (RNs) were allowed to join the association.b.Nurses who were not PHNs were encouraged to join.c.National standards of practice were developed.d.A process was developed to choose the organization’s leaders and officers.
CIn 1987, the CHNAC, an interest group of the Canadian Nurses Association (CNA), was formed. This association developed the national standards of practice (published in 2003) for CHNs. These standards of practice have helped establish the term community health nursing as the umbrella term for all nurses working in and with communities and defined the minimum scope of practice for CHNs.
Following the release of the Romanow Report in 2002, which type of care was identified as the most rapidly growing area of community health care?a.Home careb.Community problemsc.Immunizationd.Women’s issues
AThe Romanow Report (2002) identified home care as the most rapidly growing area of community health care.
In which area was the first PHNs in Canada employed?a.Healthy baby clinicsb.Outpost nursingc.School health programsd.Tuberculosis education, prevention, and treatment
DFrom the 1920s to the 1940s, nurses specializing in TB care were replaced by PHNs, as it was believed that visiting nurses would be more effective and efficient if they moved to general nursing care. Therefore, PHNs became specialists in TB education, prevention, and treatment.
What was the main reason for the brief existence of the nurse practitioner–model educational program?a.Inadequate assessment and planning in the local areab.Insufficient provincial/territorial fundingc.The large number of primary care physicians practicing in urban areasd.The need for nursing expertise and skills
CIn Ontario, the nurse practitioner model for alternative health care delivery was initiated with the educational program offered by McMaster University. However, its existence was short-lived because of a perceived duplication of services and a lack of career opportunities for nurse practitioners, partly because there were too many primary care physicians practising in urban areas.
Which one of the following is the main area of concern for the occupational health nurse (OHN)?a.Increasing benefits upon renewal of employment contractsb.Ensuring higher salaries and bonuses upon acceptance of employmentc.Returning most nursing care to the home, where family members give all needed cared.Focusing on disease prevention activities in the workplace
DOccupational health nursing is a specialty area within community health nursing, with a focus on disease prevention, rehabilitation, and health promotion activities in the workplace.
Which of the following best describes the concept of public health?a.A population health approach designed to prevent disease, promote health, and protect populationsb.Health care provision offered in primary and secondary institutions or in clients’ homesc.Provision of health care services in institutions located in the community but outside the hospitald.Use of the nursing process and evidence-informed practice to meet the objectives for community health improvement
AIn Canada, public health takes a population health approach to protecting and promoting health and preventing disease for all Canadians. Public health nurses (PHNs) work with many partners, both within the public health unit or health authority (e.g., nutritionists, epidemiologists, dental hygienists, health inspectors) and external to the health unit (e.g., community coalitions for heart health, cancer screening, diabetes, and obesity prevention; school and hospital administrators; regional planners; social service and child-care workers; lobbyists for health issues such as antismoking legislation and homelessness).
The increasing complexity of societal needs and rapid changes in public health no longer allow adequate time for on-the-job training and education. As a result, which of the following is the current minimum level of educational preparation for a military nurse?a.Training as a registered practical nurseb.Training as a registered nursec.A baccalaureate degree in nursingd.A master of science degree in nursing
CEducational preparation for military nurses should be at least a baccalaureate degree.
Which of the following is a core competency required of PHNs?a.Advanced knowledge in the use of high-technology diagnosticsb.Familiarity with current life-support technologyc.Highly tuned skills for assessment of critically ill clientsd.Skill in developing policy and planning programs to improve health
DSkill in developing policy and planning programs to improve health is part of the set of core public health competencies, which are divided into the following eight domains: 1) Public Health and Nursing Sciences; 2) Assessment and Analysis; 3) Policy and Program Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation; 4) Partnerships, Collaboration, and Advocacy; 5) Diversity and Inclusiveness; 6) Communication; 7) Leadership and Professional Responsibility; and 8) Accountability. The other competencies listed are better suited to nurses who work in tertiary facilities, such as hospitals.
A public health administrator is in the process of hiring a new PHN. Which of the following statements by a potential employee would raise the greatest concern for the employer?a.“I like to be the only person working on a project because individual team members have their own ideas and plans, and the resulting debate slows progress.”b.“I prefer to work in teams because no single person has too much responsibility and the burden is shared.”c.“Teamwork is better than work done by individuals because teamwork incorporates different perspectives.”d.“Whether teamwork is better than work done by individuals depends on the nature of the work being performed.”
AWorking in collaborative partnerships is an essential role of public health nursing. Partnerships and collaboration among groups are much more powerful in making changes than are the individual client and the PHN working separately. Part of the reason for this is that multiple perspectives are examined in the process of arriving at the best solution.
Which one of the following is a primary prevention activity for decreasing the incidence of communicable diseases?a.Identifying and treating clients in a clinic for sexually transmitted infections (STIs)b.Partnering with school teachers to teach handwashing to elementary school children and observe their techniquesc.Providing case management services that link clients with communicable diseases to health care and community support servicesd.Providing directly observed therapy (DOT) to clients with active tuberculosis (TB)
BAn example of primary prevention is to educate daycare centres, schools, and the general community about the importance of hand hygiene to prevent transmission of communicable diseases.
A PHN is participating in which activity when tracing the sexual contacts of clients with STIs for screening purposes?a.Primary preventionb.Secondary preventionc.Tertiary preventiond.Secondary and tertiary prevention
APrimary prevention activities include contacting and tracing individuals exposed to a client with an active case of TB or an STI. Once contact has been made, the actual screening is a secondary prevention activity.
Through which one of the following actions can the community health nurse (CHN) provide tertiary prevention?a.Disseminating information about mental health to community organizationsb.Partnering with PHNs for early identification of children with mental health challengesc.Providing case management services that link clients with serious mental illnesses to mental health and community support servicesd.Screening clients at high risk for mental disorders
CAn example of tertiary prevention is the provision of case management services that link clients identified with serious mental illnesses to mental health and community support services.
Which of the following represents the primary difference between parish nursing and all other fields of nursing?a.Affiliation with a church or congregationb.Incorporation of spiritual aspects into nursing carec.Provision of holistic nursing cared.Residence within the community of service
AParish nurses are found in faith congregations, including communities that serve diverse cultures. Parish nurses also serve faith communities in other countries.
To help congregation members better meet their nutritional needs, a parish nurse encourages them to participate in activities that focus on fellowship, as well as serving healthy meals to both attending and homebound church members. What do programs such as this exemplify?a.Entitlement programsb.Health ministriesc.Partnershipsd.Pastoral care practices
BHealth ministries comprise those activities and programs in faith communities that are organized around health and healing to promote whole health across the lifespan. Health ministries’ services may be specifically planned or informal and may include visiting the homebound, providing meals for families in crisis or for those returning home after hospitalization, organizing prayer circles, volunteering in community HIV/AIDS care groups, serving “heart healthy” church suppers, and holding regular grief support groups.
As part of primary prevention, a parish nurse wants to encourage some elementary school students to increase their vigorous exercise. Which action by the parish nurse will help these students attain an improved health status?a.Encouraging families to ensure that the students receive healthy diets and plenty of restb.Fostering relationships among families with children of similar ages so that they can work together toward goal attainmentc.Partnering with a youth pastor to establish sports activities that will include those individuals with special needsd.Working with faith-based school teachers to include in the curriculum teaching about healthy diet and food selection
CParish nursing’s goal is to develop and sustain health ministries within faith communities. Some of the usual functions of parish nurses include providing personal health counselling and health education, acting as a liaison between the faith community and the local community, facilitating activities, and providing pastoral care.
Which statement by a parish nurse exhibits a misunderstanding of the concept of pastoral care?a.“By working with my clients to help them identify their spiritual strengths, I am drawing on the pastoral care aspects of practice.”b.“I incorporate pastoral care in my practice when I involve the pastor in ministering to the members of the congregation.”c.“I am practising pastoral care when I emphasize the spiritual dimension of nursing while providing care.”d.“Lending support to clients during their times of joy as well as times of sorrow is part of providing pastoral care.”
BPastoral care by a parish nurse implies providing care by stressing the spiritual dimension of nursing, lending support during times of joy and sorrow, guiding the person through health and illness throughout life, and helping identify the spiritual strengths that assist in coping with particular events. The parish nurse is able to provide pastoral care; she or he does not have to involve the pastor.
Through which one of the following interventions can the parish nurse implement primary prevention of obesity in school-aged church members?a.Establishing a walking program that is sufficiently challenging, yet not too strenuous, for those who are obeseb.Partnering with youth camp cooks to ensure that a nutritious diet is providedc.Supervising height and weight measurements taken by clinic assistantsd.Working with parents of obese children to implement lifestyle changes in the family
BAn example of primary prevention is encouraging the provision of healthy snacks and meals to children and adults at all events inside and outside of school.
What is the basic difference between home health care and other types of health care?a.Home health care is individualized care for the client and family.b.Home health care is provided in the client’s environment.c.Reimbursement for home health care is different from that of care provided in institutions.d.Home health care focuses on community health.
BHome health care differs from other types of health care in that home health care providers practice in the client’s environment.
A CHN has just received word that the provincial health care plan will provide compensation for the care that she provided to a homeless man with schizophrenia, who was unwilling to come to the clinic to receive health care. How can this type of nursing service be best classified?a.Community-oriented nursingb.Home health nursingc.Hospice nursingd.Private duty nursing
BHome health nursing is provided in the client’s environment, wherever that may be. “Home” may be a house, apartment, trailer, boarding and care home, shelter, car, makeshift shelter under a bridge, or cardboard box.