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Flashcards in L4 Cultural Connection Deck (27)
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What is culture?

Culture is our way of living. There are many different
expressions of culture – be it in art, science, humour, law, and sport, just to name a few. Culture influences—but doesn’t determine—our behaviour and our understanding of other people’s behaviour.


What is cultural humility?

Cultural humility: examining your own values, beliefs, experiences, and biases through self-reflection and lifelong inquiry, and being curious and open to learning about patients’ values, beliefs, and experiences in order to develop mutual understanding, successful partnerships, and cultural safety.

lifelong journey of self-evaluation, reflection, and learning to deepen our understanding of how our life experiences influence how we understand and interact with others.
- Listening without judgement of others


How can we move towards cultural safety? (3)

Cultural awareness and sensitivity, cultural competency, cultural humility

Dfn: when people of diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds feel repsected and safe from discrimination (when they interact with health care system)
- Improves as we process along the path of self-reflection and learning


7 Fundamental Practices?

● Practice lifelong learning
● Exercise self-reflection and critique
● Recognize the dynamics of power and privilege
● Be comfortable not knowing
● Communication clearly
● Use appropriate body language
● Use visuals


How can we improve health literacy?

Health literacy can be improved by supporting individuals and by reducing barriers within the health


What is Kleinman's Explanatory Model?

care providers ask their clients questions to gain insight into the client’s worldview, culture, social context, and spirituality. Exploring what is most important to clients can help build a trusting relationship between clients and care providers.

*Addresses E in SCHOLARE
- Not always used
- You might get curious about something


What are 7 questions to ask in Kleinman's Explanatory Model?

● What do you call this problem? -> Name
● What do you believe is the cause of this problem? -> Cause
● What course do you expect it to take? How serious is it? -> Serious
● What do you think this problem does inside your body? -> Action
● How does it affect your body and your mind? -> Affects
● What do you most fear about this condition? -> Fear
● What do you most fear about the treatment? -> Fear Tx


What is D.I.V.E.R.S.E.?

what does it stand for?

tool that can be used to develop a personalized care plan incorporating a client’s values and beliefs, and to explore diverse cultural values and beliefs.

- Explore pt cultural values/beliefs
- Not used all the time



D stand for? What to ask?

Demographics Gather information about the client’s background. “What is your family background?” “How long have you lived in Canada?” (This can be sensitive)


I stand for? What to ask?

Ideas Find out what the client’s ideas are about health and illness. “What do you think keeps you healthy/makes you sick?” “Why do you think the problems started?”


V stand for? What to ask?

Ask about the client’s views on health care treatments, their treatment preferences and the use of home remedies. “Do you use any traditional or home health remedies to improve your health?” “What kind of treatment do you think will work?”


E stand for? What to ask? (1st)


Inquire about what the client expects from you. “What do you hope to achieve from today’s visit?” “What do you hope to achieve from treatment?”


R stand for? What to ask?

Religion Find out about the client’s religious and spiritual traditions. “Will religious or spiritual observations affect your ability to follow treatment?” “How?”


S stand for? What to ask?

Speech Identify a client’s language needs. Avoid using a family member as interpreter. “What language do you prefer to speak/read?” “Would you prefer printed or spoken instructions?”


E stand for? What to ask? (2nd)

Environment Learn about the client’s home environment and the cultural aspects that are part of the environment. Home environment includes daily schedule, support system and level of independence. “How many people live in your house?” “Who helps you when you are ill or need help?”

social determinants of health, how your family manages day to day


What is L.E.A.R.N.?

when is it not used?

Communication tool that can be used to improve communication, enhance awareness of personal and
cultural beliefs, and help determine acceptable care plans.
- “Approach to build a care plan”
- For negotiating the care plan, collaborative

Not used in crisis response situations, enhances patient centered care


L stand for? What to ask? (learn)

Listen with empathy and understanding to the client’s perception of the problem. Try questions like: What do you think may be causing your problem? How do you
think the illness is affecting you? What do you think might be beneficial?


E stand for? What to ask? (learn)

Explain your thoughts and perceptions about the problem.


A stand for? What to ask? (learn)

Acknowledge, discuss, and incorporate the differences and similarities between your client’s beliefs and your own professional understanding of treatment options.


R stand for? What to ask? (learn)

Recommend treatment. Suggest a treatment plan that is developed with the client’s involvement, including culturally appropriate aspects.


N stand for? What to ask? (learn)

Negotiate agreement. The final treatment plan should be determined as mutually agreeable by both the care provider and client.


how harmful is stigma? how can we help?

- Stigma against people with addiction does more harm than adddicition itself
- Changing our language can save lives, compassion and respect
- Learn what phrases create stigma


Define cultural awareness

starts with recognizing differences and similarities exist between cultures
- Learn about histories that impact the Indigenous peoples in Canada


Define Cultural sensitivity

- grows when we start to see influences of our own culture and knowledge and acknowledge we have biases
- Not about treating everyone the same
- awareness and sensitivity comes responsibility to act respectfully


Define Cultural competency

developing practical skills for interacting in respectful ways with people who are different from us. Reducing the number of assumptions we make about people based on our biases.
- The knowledge, skills and attitudes for working effectively and respectfully with diverse people
- Doesn’t require us to become experts in cultures different from our own


Define Cultural humility

lifelong journey of self-evaluation, reflection, and learning to deepen our understanding of how our life experiences influence how we understand and interact with others.
- Listening without judgement of others


what kind of philosophy do Indigenous Peoples have in relation to care?

- People first philosophy or respect for inherent value of each person is critical
- Your relationship as to human beings is more important than your professional function
- Explain and ask permission - let patient be in control and make choices, apologize if in rush
- Healing needs to include balance and restoration of mind, body, spirit, etc.
- Large circle of extended family and friends plays a huge role in restoration of balance
- Ask for Aboriginal liaison, care coordinators
- Contact Aboriginal health Program to find out if facility or program has a care coordinator or cultural helper
- Indigenous peoples may value the relationship over the technical expertise or training of pharmacists and other HCPs. Whereas people with a Western perspective tend to value technical expertise over the quality of a relationship with a pharmacist. This is a trend and not an absolute.