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Flashcards in Kohlberg (1968) Deck (18)
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1

What are morals? What are the 4 main morals?

Correct way of interacting with others.
-It is wrong to kill innocent people
-It is wrong to steal
-It is wrong to tell lies
-It is right to keep promises

2

What did Piaget say about moral development?

That moral development is linked to how the child thought about themselves and their surroundings - start off with rigid view of world but through interaction with peers etc, child begins to develop morals.

3

What was the aim of Kohlberg's study?

To show how his research supports Piaget's stage theory of moral development.

4

Outline Kohlbergs procedure (and sample).

-Studied 75 American boys over 12 years - at start aged from 10 to 16 through to 22-28 years old
-Each boy presented with moral dilemmas at 3-yearly intervals
-Their answers were linked to 25 basic moral concepts

5

What is level 1 of Kohlberg's stage theory of moral development?

Pre-conventional stage (age 4-10 years)

6

What is level 2 of Kohlberg's stage theory of moral development?

Conventional stage.

7

What is level 3 of Kohlberg's stage theory of moral development?

Post-conventional stage.

8

Outline stage 1 and 2 in level 1 of Kohlberg's stage theory of moral development.

-Stage 1 - Obedience and punishment orientation (child well behaved unless authority structure missing)
-Stage 2 - Self-interest orientation (child behaves in self-centered way)

9

Outline stage 3 and 4 in level 2 of Kohlberg's stage theory of moral development.

-Stage 3 - Conformity to expectation and rules (child seeks approval from others)
-Stage 4 - Authority and social order orientation (child see right behaviour as duty to show respect)

10

Outline stage 5 and 6 in level 3 of Kohlberg's stage theory of moral development.

-Stage 5 - Social contract orientation (child now does what is right based on law)
-Stage 6 - Universal ethical principles (child now bases judgement on universal human rights of justice and equality)

11

How did the child in Stage 1 respond when asked 'Is it better to save the life of one important person than a lot of unimportant people?'?

Child refers to furniture and says one man has a house with some furniture, but a lot a people have 'an awful lot of furniture' - confusing value of a human with property he possesses (child aged 10).

12

How did the child in Stage 2 respond when asked 'Should the doctor 'mercy kill' a fatally ill woman requesting death because of her pain?'?

Child thinks the value of the woman's life partly rests to the wife herself but more on the instrumental value to her husband, who can't replace her 'as easily as a pet' (child aged 13).

13

How did the child in Stage 3 respond when asked 'Should the doctor 'mercy kill' as fatally ill woman requesting death because of her pain?'?

Still confusing value of woman's life with how much her husband is 'attached' to her. (child aged 16)

14

How did the child in Stage 4 respond when asked 'Should the doctor 'mercy kill' a fatally ill woman requesting death because of her pain?'?

Child says that life is sacred in terms of its place in a religious order. Says value of human life is universal, but it is also dependent on respect for God and God's authority. (child aged 16)

15

How did the adult in Stage 5 respond when asked 'Should the doctor 'mercy kill' a fatally ill woman requesting death because of her pain?'?

Adult says the value of human life is defined in terms of equal and universal human rights. (adult aged 20)

16

How did the adult in Stage 6 respond when asked 'Should the doctor 'mercy kill' a fatally ill woman requesting death because of her pain?'?

Adult sees value of human life as absolute in representing a universal and equal respect for the human as an individual.

17

What did Kohlberg find the rate of going through the stages depended on?

Differed depending on social class and setting - quickest for middle class children and slowest for lower class urban children and village boys.

18

What are the main conclusions of Kohlberg's study?

-Moral development occurs in the same sequence regardless of where a child grows up.
-Each stage has a better cognitive organization than the one before it