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Flashcards in Kinship Deck (62)
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1

Anthropological interest in relatedness

- Long-standing interest in close relationships that define our lives
- Relatedness is defined as the socially recognized ties that connect people in a variety of ways, such as:
Marriage
Family
Kinship
Friendship

2

Kinship

Social relationships prototypically derived from the universal human experience of mating, birth and nurturance

3

Functions of kinship

- how group members are recruited (marriage, birth, adoption)
- where group members live (residence rules)
- how inter-generational links are established (descent)
- how to pass on social positions (succession) or material goods (inheritance)

4

Kinship studies in the past

First large-scale kinship study was Lewis Henry Morgan’s Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family (1871)
Relatedness through blood and through marriage

5

Kinship studies in the present

Current kinship studies might focus more on what constitutes a family given the context of new reproductive technologies, increasing numbers of divorce, changing laws about marriage, and the possibilities of DNA testing

6

Romanticization of "Golden Age" of American Family

- Idea that families in the past – depicted on TV – were more intact, closer, shared the same values
- But in reality, American family has been changing since industrialization
E.g. Lynd and Lynd’s research from 1920s
- Examined cross-culturally, the relationship between children and parents/elders always involves some tension

7

Marriage

- Wide variations across cultures but anthropologists agree that marriage is:
An institution that prototypically involves a man and a woman, transforms the status of the participants, carries implications about sexual access, gives offspring a position in society, and establishes connections between the kin of a husband and the kin of a wife.
May involve more than one man or woman
- Marriage involves rights and obligations, establishes roles and alliances, and changes over time

8

Marriage as a social process

- Anthropologists see marriage as a social process (e.g. forms alliances, reinforces rights and obligations)
- This is why other people often participate in marriage ceremony
- As societal norms change, so do rules around marriage

9

Bridewealth

The transfer of certain symbolically important goods from the family of the groom to the family of the bride representing compensation to the wife’s lineage for the loss of her labour and for child-bearing capacities

10

Dowry

Transfer of family wealth from parents to their child (usually a daughter) at marriage
- Potential for tensions and dowry violence

11

Residence

- Neolocal (major pattern)
- Patrilocal (major)
- Matrilocal (major)
- Avunculocal (major)
- Ambilocal (minor)
- Duolocal (minor)

12

Neolocal

In a place of the couple's own choosing

13

Patrilocal

With/near the husband's father's family

14

Matrilocal

With or near the family in which the wife was raised

15

Avunlocal

With/near the husband's mother's brother

16

Ambilocal

First with the family of one spouse, then the family of the other

17

Duolocal

Each partner lives members of his or her own lineage even after marriage

18

Endogamous marriage

Marriage within a defined social group

19

Exogamous marriage

Marriage outside a defined social group

20

Incest taboos

In all societies, some close kin are off limits as spouses or sexual partners, specifically members of the nuclear family

21

Affinal

Related through marriage

22

Cosanguines

Related through blood

23

Levirate

A widow marries her deceased husband's brother

24

Sororate

A widower marries a sister (or specific cousin) of his deceased wife

25

Female "pater" marriage

A woman plays the social role of a man while married to another wife; provides for the wife and the wife's children, and the wife's children would call her "father"

26

Ghost marriage

A man who died without male heirs would become an angry spirit, so to appease that spirit, a kinsman would marry a woman "to his name" - but then this would raise the issue of being able to marry for himself and avoid the same fate, as family would allocate their resources to pay brideswealth to unmarried kin.

27

Monogamy

A marriage pattern in which a person may be married to only one person at a time

28

Polygamy

A marriage pattern in which a person may be married to more than one person at a time

29

Polygyny

Multiple wives

30

Polyandry

Much rarer than polygyny, but 3 types: associated, fraternal and secondary marriage