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Kevin Jimbi K12 Homeschool > Kevin’s Cards about Cells and Energy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Kevin’s Cards about Cells and Energy Deck (137)
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121

What are the repeating stages of the cell cycle

The stages are as follows: G1, in which the cell grows, increases size, and makes new proteins and organelles; S, in which DNA synthesis occurs in the nucleus, and all genetic material is duplicated; G2, in which cells continue to grow and to prepare for cell division; and mitosis and cytokinesis, which take place after the G2 stage

122

What happens when a cell copies its DNA

When a cell copies its DNA, each chromosome must be copied. The 2 copies of a chromosome are called sister chromatids. At first, the two copies are joined together at the centeromere

123

Chromatids Definition

The two copies of a duplicated chromosome that will eventually end up in separate cells

124

Centromere Definition

The place where two sister chromatids join in a chromosome before it divides during mitosis or meiosis

125

What is the first phase in the two-phase process of cell division

Mitosis is the first phase in the two-phase process of cell division. During mitosis, the sister chromatids separate and move to opposite ends of the cell. By the end of mitosis, two full sets of chromosomes are grouped together

126

Scientists divide mitosis into 4 stages. What are they in order

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase

127

What are the 3 steps in prophase

1. The chromosome coil up tightly. This makes them more compact so that they can move easily and avoid breaking
2. The membrane surrounding the nucleus breaks down, freeing the chromosomes
3. A system of fibers, called the spindle, starts to form

128

Prophase Definition

The first step of mitosis, in which the chromosomes coil and become more compact

129

Spindle Definition

All the spindle fiber considered together

130

Metaphase Definition

The second phase of mitosis, in which the chromosomes arrange in a plane at the middle of the cell

131

Where does metaphase begin

Metaphase begins as the chromosomes spread out across the center line of the cell

132

Anaphase Definition

The third phase of mitosis, in which the chromosomes split and move apart

133

What happens in anaphase

In the third stage of mitosis called anaphase, the spindle fibers start to pull away from the center of the cell. The sister chromatids are pulled apart, and the spindle acts like a conveyor belt, carrying them to opposite ends of the cell

134

Telophase Definition

The 4th and final phase of mitosis, in which the chromosomes reach two sides of a cell and are incorporated into 2 new nuclei

135

What happens in telophase

The telophase, the sister chromatids have moved to opposite ends of the cell. The spindle is no longer needed, and it breaks down. Nuclear membranes form around each set of chromosomes to form two separate nuclei. Even though there are two nuclei, there is still only one cell

136

What does prophase exhibits what

Prophase exhibits tightly coiled chromosomes, breakdown of the nuclear membrane

137

What does AMP do

AMP is important in cell growth and transport items across membranes

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