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Flashcards in Kevin’s Cards about Cells and Energy Deck (137)
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91

What is concentration

The amount of a specific type of molecule (also known as solute) dissolved within a specific amount of solution is called the concentration of the molecule

92

What is the simplest way molecules move through membranes

By diffusion

93

How does diffusion work

If a membrane is in the molecule’s path, and they can pass freely through the membrane, the molecules will tend to move from the side on which the substance is at higher concentration to the side on which it is in lower concentration

94

The region of where diffusion or the changes in concentration is called what

A concentration gradient

95

H2O and CO2 are molecules that can do what

They can pass through a cell membrane by simple diffusion

96

What do molecules need to have to pass through the plasma membrane

To diffuse through a plasma membrane’s lipid bilayer, a molecule must be small enough and must be able to get through the hydrophobic lipid environment in the middle of the bilayer

97

What molecules can diffuse through the lipid bilayer by simple diffusion

O2, CO2, and H2O

98

What is an Osmosis concept

Solute molecules take up space in solution where water molecules would otherwise be. Thus, there are less water molecules relative to the number of solute molecules when the solute concentration is greater

99

What is Osmosis

When water moves from the area of lower solute concentration (higher water concentration) to an area of higher solute concentration (lower water concentration in the sugar solution)

100

High concentration

More molecules

101

Low concentration

Less molecules

102

What is bloating and shriveling

As water moves in and out of cells by osmosis, the size of the cell (also the organism) can change. If to much moves into the cell, the organism may bloat. If to much goes out, the organism may shrivel. This is why it is important for many organisms to regulate the concentration of molecules that surround their cell

103

What is facilitated diffusion

Diffusion across a membrane that is aided by transport proteins. This makes diffusion faster than it would otherwise be

104

Channel proteins do what

Channel proteins can let some molecules get across the membrane. Channel protein’s sizes, electrical charges, and structures make some of them selective to particular ions

105

What is a parent cell and daughter cells

A cell that divides is called a parent cell. The two new cells that result from this division are called daughter cells

106

Where is the genetic material found in the cell

The genetic material of a cell is found in the nucleus. This genetic material consists of DNA and special proteins that form structures called chromosomes

107

Chromosomes Definition

Threadlike structures made of protein and DNA that contain the instructions for building, maintaining, and operating the cell

108

What must be divided between the daughter cells

The chromosomes contain all the instructions a cell needs to survive, so each daughter cell that results from cell division must have a full set chromosomes. The remaining cell material, the cytoplasm, also needs to be divided between the two daughter cells

109

What composes the cell cycle

The repeating stages a cell experiences, including cell division, compose the cell cycle

110

Cell Cycle Definition

The repeating series of stages a dividing cell goes through

111

What is the mitotic phase

The time a cell spend actively dividing is called the mitotic phase. There are two steps in the mitotic phase. In mitosis, the genetic material of the nucleus divides after making a copy of itself. Then the cytoplasm divides (usually in half) during a process called cytokinesis

112

How do cells divide

Some cells divide frequently and other divide rarely, if at all

113

Mitosis Definition

A process of cell division of the genetic material (chromosomes) of a eukaryotic cell in which each of the two resulting nuclei receives a complete set of chromosomes that is the same as in the parent cell

114

Cytokinesis Definition

The stage of the cell cycle in which the membrane- enclosed cytoplasm of the cell divides to form two cells

115

What is the percentage of the mitotic process consumes the cell’s life

The mitotic phase takes up only about 10% of a cell’s lifetime. During the other 90% of its lifetime, you wouldn’t actually see much if you observed a cell with a microscope. During this time, the parent cell grows larger in preparation for division. There must be enough material for both daughter cells. Also, the genetic material in the nucleus makes a copy itself. This process is called DNA synthesis. After that, there are two sets of genetic material, one for each daughter cell

116

What is cytokinesis in animal cells like

Cytokinesis in animal cells involves the pinching of the cell’s cytoplasm until the two newly formed cells separate

117

What is cytokinesis in plant cells like

In plant cells, cytokinesis is slightly different. It involves the building of a new cell wall and cell membranes through the middle of the cell in between 2 newly formed nuclei. To accomplish this, certain structures transport materials for the cell wall

118

What happens in meiosis

In meiosis, each daughter cell will get 2 of the genetic material from the parent cell. As a result of meiosis, gametes, called egg and sperm cells, are produced

119

Meiosis Definition

A type of cell division in which the resulting cells have half the chromosome number of the parent

120

What tasks can cell division help organisms accomplish

Cell division helps unicellular organisms reproduce and helps multicellular organisms grow, repair damaged tissues, and replace old cells with new ones

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