Jaundice and Chronic Liver Disease Flashcards Preview

07. Year 2: Alimentary System > Jaundice and Chronic Liver Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Jaundice and Chronic Liver Disease Deck (112)
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1

What is a doctor who deals with the liver called?

Hepatologist

2

What are the different categories of liver functions?

Synthetic function

Detoxification function

Immune function

Storage function

3

What are synthetic functions of the liver?

Clotting factors

Bile acids

Carbohydrates

Proteins

Lipids

Hormones

4

What functions related to carbohydrates is the liver responsible for?

Gluconeogenesis

Glycogenolysis

Glycogenesis

5

What is glycogenolysis?

Breakdown of glycogen to glucose

6

What is glycogenesis?

The formation of glycogen from glucose

7

What is gluconeogenesis?

Generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate substances

8

What protein is the liver responsible for making?

Albumin

9

What lipids is the liver responsible for making?

Cholesterol

Lipoprotein and triacylglyerol

10

What hormones is the liver responsible for making?

Angiotensinogen

Insulin like growth factor

11

What are detoxification functions of the liver?

Urea production from ammonia

Detoxification of drugs

Bilirubin metabolism

Breakdown of insulin and hormones

12

What are immune functions of the liver?

Combating infections

Clearing the blood of particles and infections, including bacteria

Neutralising and destroying all drugs and toxins

13

What are storage functions of the liver?

Stores glycogen

Stores vitamin A, D, B12 and K

Stores copper and iron

14

What things do liver function tests measure?

Bilirubin

Aminotransferases

Alkaline phophotase

Gamma GT

Albumin

Prothrombin time

Creatinine

Platelet count

15

What is bilirubin a by product of?

Haem metabolism

16

What is bilirubin generated by?

Senescent RBCs in the spleen

17

What is bilirubin bound to when it is unconjugated?

Albumin

18

What does conjugating bilirubin do?

Solubilises it

19

What is bilirubin elevated as a result of?

Haemolysis (pre-hepatic)

Parenchymal damage (hepatic)

Obstruction (post hepatic)

20

What are aminotransferases?

Enzymes present in hepatocytes

21

What are examples of aminotransferases?

AST

ALT

22

What can the AST/ALT ratio point towards?

Alcoholic liver disease

23

What is alkaline phosphotase?

Enzyme present in bile ducts

24

What causes alkaline phosphatase to be elevated?

Obstruction or liver infiltration

25

Other than the bile duct, where is alkaline phosphatase present?

Bone

Placenta

Intestines

26

What is Gamma GT?

Non-specific liver enzyme

27

What causes Gamma GT to be elevated?

Alcohol use

28

What drugs can raise Gamma GT levels?

NSAIDs

29

What do low levels of albumin suggest?

Chronic liver disease

30

Other than liver diseases, what else can cause low albumin levels?

Kidney disorders and malnutrition