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Flashcards in Involuntary Movement Disorders Deck (44)
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1

What is involuntary movement defined as?

A movement that the person does not start or stop at the person’s own command or with an observer’s command

2

What are common forms of hypokinesia?

1. Apraxia

2. Rigidity

3. Bradykinesia

3

What are common forms of hyperkinesia?

1. Ataxia

2. Athetosis

3. Chorea

4. Tremors

5. dysmetria

6. Dystopia

4

How does athetosis present?

Slow, twisting, and writhing movements that are LARGE amplitude

5

Where are athetoid movements primarily seen?

Face, tongue, trunk and extremities

6

When the movements are brief, the merge with __________ (choreathetosis), and when SUSTAINED, they merge with ________, and is typically associated with spasticity

Chorea; Dystonia

7

Athetosis is a common finding in what pathologies?

Several forms of CP secondary to basal ganglia pathology

8

How does chorea present?

Brief, Irregular contractions that are rapid, but not to the degree of myoclonic jerks.

9

What is chorea typically secondary to?

Damage of the CAUDATE nucleus

10

What is chorea often equated to?

“Fidgeting”

11

________ is a form of chorea that includes choreic jerks of large amplitude.

Ballism

12

What does Ballism produce?

Produces failing movements of the limbs

13

What is ballism typically secondary to?

Secondary To damage of the Subthalamic nucleus

14

What is an example of a disease that presents with chorea?

Huntington’s Disease

15

What is dystonia?

Syndrome of sustained muscle contraction that frequently cause twisting, abnormal postures, and repetitive movements

16

What are common diagnoses that may include dystonia?

PD, CP, and encephalitis

17

What are tics?

Sudden, brief, repetitive, coordinated movements that will usually occur at irregular intervals

18

T or F: There are simple and complex tics that vary from myoclonic jerks to jumping movements that may include focalization and repetition of other sounds

True

19

What is an example of a pathology that presents with tics?

Tourette syndrome

20

Describe Tremors.

Involuntary, rhythmic, oscillatory movements taht are typically classified into 3 groups:

1. Resting

2. Postural

3. Intention (kinetic)

21

What are resting tremors?

Observable at rest and may or may not disappear with movment; may increase with mental stress

22

What is an example of a resting tremor?

Pill-rolling in PD

23

What are postural tremors?

Observable during a voluntary contraction to maintain a posture

24

What is an example of a postural tremor?

Include the rapid tremor associated with hyperthyroidism, fatigue or anxiety, and benign essential tremor

25

What is an intention (kinetic) tremor?

Absent at rest, but observable with activity and typically increase as the target approaches.

26

What do intention tremors typically indicate?

Cerebellum or its efferent (motor) pathways and are typically seen with MS

27

Akinesia

The inability to initiate movement; commonly seen in PD

28

Asthenia

Generalized weakness, typically secondary to cerebellar pathology

29

Ataxia

The inability to perform coordinated movements

30

Athetosis

A condition that presents with involuntary movements combined with instability in posture

Peripheral movements occur without central stability