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What International Classification of Diseases (ICD) edition was the DSM-5 organizational system designed to closely parallel?

ICD-11, Which will be released in 2019


How are the chapters in the DSM-5 organized

Roughly in order of common emergence (childhood disorders/adolescent disorders/young adult disorders/late adulthood disorders) with the adult disorders further organized by first internalizing (emotional and somatic) disorders, then externalizing disorders, neurocognitive, and other disorders.


cultural syndrome

A cluster or group of co-occurring, relatively invariant symptoms found in a specific cultural group, community or context. The syndrome may or may not be recognized as an illness within the culture, but such cultural patterns of distress and features of illness may nevertheless be recognizable by an outside observer.


cultural idiom of distress

A linguistic term, phrase or way of talking about suffering among individuals of a cultural group referring to shared concepts of pathology and ways of expressing, communication or naming essential features of distress.


cultural explanation or perceived cause

A label, attribution, or feature of an explanatory model that provides a culturally conceived etiology or cause for symptoms, illness or distress.


sex differences

Variations attributable to an individual's reproductive organs and XX or XY chromosomal complement


gender differences

Variations that result from biological sex as well as an individual's self-representation that includes the psychological, behavioral, and social consequences of one's perceived gener.


Are Sex or Gender differences more likely to be a factor in the expression of mental illnesses?

Gender differences are more common, therefore the DSM-5 generally uses this term.


How should "other specified disorder" be used?

This designation allows the clinician to communicate the specific reason that the presentation does not meet the criteria for any specific category within a diagnostic class. This is done by recording the name of the category, followed by the specific reason. For example: "Other specified depressive disorder, depressive episode with insufficient symptoms"


How should "unspecified disorder" be used?

This designation is used whenever a clinician chooses not to specify why the criteria are not met for a specific disorder. For example: "Unspecified depressive disorder"


When should "other specified disorder" be used as opposed to "unspecified disorder"?

This is left entirely up to clinical judgment. Clinicians do not have to differentiate between other specified and unspecified disorders based on some feature of the presentation itself.


Describe the 5 axis of the multiaxial system used in DSM-IV.

Axis I refers broadly to the principal disorder that needs immediate attention; e.g., a major depressive episode, an exacerbation of schizophrenia, or a flare-up of panic disorder. It is usually (though not always) the Axis I disorder that brings the person "through the office door."

Axis II lists any personality disorder that may be shaping the current response to the Axis I problem. Axis II also indicates any developmental disorders, such as mental retardation or a learning disability, which may be predisposing the person to the Axis I problem. For example, someone with severe mental retardation or a paranoid personality disorder may be more likely to be "bowled over" by a major life stressor, and succumb to a major depressive episode.

Axis III lists any medical or neurological problems that may be relevant to the individual's current or past psychiatric problems; for example, someone with severe asthma may experience respiratory symptoms that are easily confused with a panic attack, or indeed, which may precipitate a panic attack.

Axis IV codes the major psychosocial stressors the individual has faced recently; e.g., recent divorce, death of spouse, job loss, etc.

Axis V consisted of the "Global Assessment of Functioning" which codes the "level of function" the individual has attained at the time of assessment, and, in some cases, is used to indicate the highest level of function in the past year. This is coded on a 0-100 scale, with 100 being nearly "perfect" functioning (none of us would score that high!).


mental disorder

A syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior that reflect a dysfunction in the psychological, biological, or developmental processes underlying mental functioning. Mental disorders are usually associated with significant distress or disability in social, occupational, or other important activities. An expectable or culturally approved response to a common stressor or loss, such as the death of a loved one, is not a mental disorder. Socially deviant behavior (e.g. political, religious, or sexual) and conflicts that are primarily between the individual and society are not mental disorders unless the deviance or conflict results from a dysfunction in the individual, as described above.



Define mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive phenomenological (related to structures of experience and consciousness) subgroupings within a diagnosis and are indicated by the instruction "Specify whether" in the criteria set



Non mutually exclusive or jointly exhaustive, and as a consequence, more than one specifier may be given. Specifiers are indicated by the instruction "Specify" or "specify if" in the criteria set. Types of specifiers include: course, severity and descriptive features


principal diagnosis

The condition established after study to be chiefly responsible for occasioning the admission of the individual when more than one diagnosis for an individual is given in an inpatient setting.


How should multiple diagnosis be listed, particularly in an inpatient settings?

The principal diagnosis is indicated by listing it first and the remaining disorders are listed in order of focus of attention and treatment. If the principal diagnosis is a mental disorder caused by an underlying medical disorder (e.g. Major neurocognitive disorder to to Alzheimer's disease) the medical disorder is listed first and the principal diagnosis is listed second and is often followed by "(principal diagnosis)" or "(reason for visit)"


provisional diagnosis

A specifier used when there is a strong presumption that the full criteria will ultimately be met for a disorder but not enough information is available to make a firm diagnosis. Indicated by writing "(provisional)" following the diagnosis.


What term replaces "mental retardation" in DSM-5?

Intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder)


What DSM-IV disorders have been combined into "Autism Spectrum Disorder" in DSM-5?

Autistic disorder (Autism), Asperger's disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, Rett's disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified.


Dysthymia and Chronic Major Depressive Disorder are now what in DSM-5?

Persistent depressive disorder


Are OCD and PTSD considered Anxiety Disorders in DSM-5?

No, they are each in their own categories now.


What disorders can the Panic Attack specifier be used with?

All DSM-5 Disorders


Are Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia linked in DSM-5



What is the new name for somatoform disorders in DSM-5?

Somatic symptom and related disorders


What has hypochondriasis been reclassified as in DSM-5?

Usually illness anxiety disorder, but another anxiety disorder might be more relevant for some presentations.


What has gender identity disorder been reclassified as in DSM-5?

Gender dysphoria