Introduction to Human Movement II: Describing Motion Flashcards Preview

DPT 726: Orthopaedic Foundations > Introduction to Human Movement II: Describing Motion > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to Human Movement II: Describing Motion Deck (33)
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1

Introduction to Describing Motion

-basic movements occur within the body: in isolation and in combination
-terminology is "language" commonly used by movement professionals
-anatomic terms independent of perspective
-has great utility in PT
-the preparation phase begins

2

Absolute vs. Universal

-absolute: coordinate system/planes of body
-universal: environmental remains the same

3

Flexion

-rotation of one or more bony levers
-ventral surfaces are often approximated
-generally occurs in sagittal plane
-opposite of extension
-hyperflexion describes movement beyond the normal range for flexion

4

Extension

-rotation of one or more bony levers
-dorsal surfaces are generally approximated
-generally occurs in sagittal plane
-opposite of flexion
-hyperextension describes movement beyond the original zero position: common in spine, arm, thigh, and hand

5

Abduction

-rotation of one or more bony levers
-distal segment moves away from midline
-typically occurs in the frontal plane (around the z axis as depicted in this front view)
-opposite of adduction

6

Adduction

-rotation of one or more bony levers
-distal segment moves toward midline
-typically occurs in the frontal plane (around the z axis depicted in this front view)
-opposite of abduction

7

Rotation

-may be either medial or lateral in extremities
-rotations designed as right or left in spine
-right rotation describes anterior surface of spine facing right: posterior spinal surface faces left
-left rotation describes anterior surface of spine facing left: posterior spinal surface faces right
-occurs in transverse plane

8

Lateral Flexion

-moving segment is part of midline
-generally occurs in frontal plane
-axial skeleton

9

Specialized Movements

-assigned to variety of segmental motions
-ex: elevation/depression, protraction/retraction, downward/upward rotation, horizontal ab/adduction, inversion/eversion, plantar/dorsiflexion, supination/pronation, circumduction

10

Elevation

-describes scapular motions
-raising of scapula
-as in shrug
-opposite of depression

11

Depression

-describes scapular motion
-lowering of scapula
-opposite of elevation

12

Protraction

-aka scapular abduction
-the 2 scapulae move away from each other
-opposite of retraction

13

Retraction

-aka scapular adduction
-the 2 scapulae move toward each other
-opposite of protraction

14

Upward Rotation

-scapulae swing out
-inferior border moves away from trunk
-top border moves toward trunk
-opposite of downard rotation

15

Downward Rotation

-scapulae swing in
-inferior border moves toward trunk
-top border moves away from trunk
-opposite of upward roation

16

Horizontal Abduction

-rotation of one or more bony levers
-ventral surfaces are approximated
-generally occurs in horizontal plane
-opposite of horizontal adduction

17

Horizontal Adduction

-rotation of one or more bony levers
-dorsal surfaces are approximated
-generally occurs in horizontal plane
-opposite of horizontal abduction

18

Plantarflexion

-specialized name for ankle flexion
-plantar surface or bottom of foot moves down
-angle between foot and leg increases
-opposite of dorsiflexion

19

Dorsiflexion

-specialized name for ankle extension
-dorsum or back of foot moves up
-ankle between foot and leg decreases
-opposite of plantarflexion

20

Inversion

-specialized motion of ankle/foot
-sole of foot turns inward
-opposition of eversion

21

Eversion

-specialized motion of ankle/foot
-sole of foot turns outward
-opposite of inversion

22

UE Supination

-movement of forearm
-distal radius rotates over and back on ulna
-forearm rotates so palm faces up
-opposite of pronation

23

UE Pronation

-movement of forearm
-distal radius rotates at radioulnar joint
-forearm rotates so palm faces down
-opposite of supination

24

LE Supination

-combination of plantarflexion of ankle, inversion of tarsals, adduction of forefoot
-opposite of pronation
-occurs functionally during gait cycle

25

LE Pronation

-combination of dorsiflexion of ankle, eversion of tarsals, abduction of forefoot
-opposite of supination
-occurs functionally during gait cycle

26

Circumduction

-created in many joints or segments
-segment moved in conic fashion as its end moves in circular path

27

Cardinal Planes

-describes the place or plane of motion
-but it is a relative (environment), rather than absolute (person) reference
-simple way of describing available joint motion
-segment is rotated through a cardinal plane or through a path parallel to a cardinal plane
-not constricted to these planes
-rotary motion occurs in axis perpendicular to plane

28

Anatomic Position: Point of Reference

-standing position
-forward facing
-palms forward
-cartesian coordinates in this view
-described as an absolute reference
-orientation of view is defined by author or researcher

29

Transverse Plane

-aka horizontal plane
-upper and lower
-movement occurs in plane parallel to ground

30

Frontal Plane

-aka coronal plane
-divides body into front and back