Flashcards in Introducing quantitative research Deck (14)
What things are pre-stated before a quantitative study?
-Aims (broad statement)
-hypotheses (statement of relationship between variables)
What are the key features of Quantitative research?
-aims, objectives, hypotheses
-outcomes = valid and reliable
-results presented statistically
- results aimed at: falsification (testing hypothesis), estimated causal relationships and estimated association between variables
What is validity?
when a study measures what it intends to measure
What is reliability?
That the study must be repeatable and produce similar effects
What should results of quantitative research be aimed at?
-establishing causal relationships
-establishing association between variables
Describe expert opinion
-lowest level of opinion
-high chance of bias/ errors
-only possible evidence source
-can be considered as research
-has some gravity
What is a case-control study?
-type of observational study
-conducted in retrospect
-starts with a condition (the case)
-matched with a control
-unable to attribute causation
What is a cohort study?
-looks at association between one entity and another
-e.g. smokers vs. non-smokers
-data collected prospectively
-collect the data you want
-provides greater precision (than case-control)
What are case-reports?
-tend to be small
What is case-series?
-same as case-report but >10 cases
-aim to measure course/progression of disease
Strengths of case-series?
-speed of deployment
-provides useful initial pilot data
Limitations of case-series?
-insufficient numbers for meaningful analysis
-only involve single groups so no independant control group
Name the 9 components of the Bradford-Hill criteria
-temporal relationship, strength, dose-response relationship, consistency, plausibility, consideration of alternate explanations, experiment, specificity, coherence