Flashcards in Intro to Zoonoses/Zoonoses from Carnivores Deck (46)
What are arthroponoses?
Diseases that people get from other people
*the reservoir is human
What are zoonoses?
Infectious diseases that people get from animals, either directly or indirectly
animals are the ultimate reservoir for dz
T/F: Poisoning/envenomation by animals is a form of zoonoses
What are some of the most common zoonoses in the USA?
shiga-toxin E. coli
Rocky mountain spotted fever
What are some examples of zoonoses that are reportable in animals?
Venezuelan equine enchephalomyelitis
What are some costs of zoonotic diseases?
Cost in human health: lost of productivity, loss of life - disease/suicide
Economic costs: treatment and prophylaxis, import and export restrictions, lost trade and tourism
How do people acquire zoonotic dz?
pets, farms, state fairs, petting zoos, pet stores, nature parks, wooded and brushy areas, child car facilities
Who ca get zoonotic dz?
Farmers and vets have a high occupational risk
Children, elderly, pregnant woman, and immuno-compromised are of the biggest concern
What social changes have affected zoonoses?
Changes in small animal ownership
Changes in the "status" of animals
Changes in exotic animal ownership
Changes in food animal production
Changes in global trade and travel
What has been the changes noted in food animal populations over the years?
Large increases in the population of production animals per farm
What are the roles of veterinarians regarding zoonoes?
Prevention and control
Occupational safety (protecting yourself and staff from daily exposure)
T/F: Some zoonotic dzs can be perpetuated in nature by a single vertebrate species
Ex: rabies, brucella
T/F: All vector transmitted infections require a combination of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts
What are some examples of viral zoonoses?
Colorado tick fever
etc etc etc
What are some examples of bacterial zoonoses?
etc etc etc
What are some examples of protozoal zoonoses?
What are some examples of helminthic zoonoses?
etc etc etc
How does a human get infected with Toxoplasma gondii?
infected feces in the litter box
Eating unwashed vegetables with infected feces
Eating raw infected meat (pig/sheep)
How long do cats typically shed immature toxoplasma gondii oocysts?
1-3 weeks; then they recover
How long does it take T. gondii oocysts to sporulate and become infectious?
1-5 days in the soil
What form of the protozoa (T. gondii) replicates within macrophages, and what phase will encyst in the muscle?
Tachyzoites - in intermediate host macrophages
Bradyzoites - encyst into muscular tissue or neurological tissues
By what methods are bradyzoites within muscle tissue rendered non-infectious?
Freezing for 7 days or by fully cooking
T/F: Oocysts of T. gondii are very resistant and can survive freezing
can survive most disinfectants, freezing, drying
In who does T. gondii infections cause severe problems?
Immuno-compromised and pregnant women
infections are usually asymptomatic in immunocompetent adults and children
What is the control program for T. gondii in cats?
There is none - no good one
Control is by reducing risk of him infections
How can the risk of human infections of T. gondii be reduced?
Pregnant women can be tested serologically for antibodies
Buy cats that are less likely to be shedding
Prevent oocyst sporulation
If you have a pregnant client with a cat, and no one else to scoop the litter box, what should you recommend she do?
She should scoop the litter box daily (decreasing the chance of sporulation to occur) it would be preferred to wear a protective mask while doing so
What is the term for diseases caused by migrating larvae in paratenic hosts?
*remember that parasitic nematodes are almost always migratory during the larval stages
Almost every dog is infected at some time with what parasite?
Roundworms: Toxocara spp - canis, cati, vitulorum