Intro to Zoonoses/Zoonoses from Carnivores Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Epi Summer 17 > Intro to Zoonoses/Zoonoses from Carnivores > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intro to Zoonoses/Zoonoses from Carnivores Deck (46)
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1

What are arthroponoses?

Diseases that people get from other people

*the reservoir is human

2

What are zoonoses?

Infectious diseases that people get from animals, either directly or indirectly

animals are the ultimate reservoir for dz

3

T/F: Poisoning/envenomation by animals is a form of zoonoses

FALSE

4

What are some of the most common zoonoses in the USA?

Salmonellosis
lyme dz
giardia
shiga-toxin E. coli
WNV
Rocky mountain spotted fever

5

What are some examples of zoonoses that are reportable in animals?

Yersina pestis
rabies
bacillus anthracis
mycobacterium bovis
brucella abortus
Venezuelan equine enchephalomyelitis

6

What are some costs of zoonotic diseases?

Cost in human health: lost of productivity, loss of life - disease/suicide

Economic costs: treatment and prophylaxis, import and export restrictions, lost trade and tourism

7

How do people acquire zoonotic dz?

pets, farms, state fairs, petting zoos, pet stores, nature parks, wooded and brushy areas, child car facilities

8

Who ca get zoonotic dz?

Anyone!!

Farmers and vets have a high occupational risk

Children, elderly, pregnant woman, and immuno-compromised are of the biggest concern

9

What social changes have affected zoonoses?

Changes in small animal ownership
Changes in the "status" of animals
Changes in exotic animal ownership
Changes in food animal production
Changes in global trade and travel

10

What has been the changes noted in food animal populations over the years?

Large increases in the population of production animals per farm

11

What are the roles of veterinarians regarding zoonoes?

Surveillance
Prevention and control
Occupational safety (protecting yourself and staff from daily exposure)

12

T/F: Some zoonotic dzs can be perpetuated in nature by a single vertebrate species

TRUE

Ex: rabies, brucella

13

T/F: All vector transmitted infections require a combination of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts

TRUE

14

What are some examples of viral zoonoses?

Colorado tick fever
Ebola
Influenza
Rabies
Nipah
Monkeypox
WNV
etc etc etc

15

What are some examples of bacterial zoonoses?

Anthraz
brucellosis
campylobacteriosis
plague
psittacosis
Q fever
etc etc etc

16

What are some examples of protozoal zoonoses?

Trypanosomiasis
babesiosis
cryptosporidiosis
Giardiasis
toxoplasmosis
etc etc

17

What are some examples of helminthic zoonoses?

Baylisascariasis
cysticercosis
echinococcosis
schistosome dermatitis
larval migrans
etc etc etc

18

How does a human get infected with Toxoplasma gondii?

infected feces in the litter box
Eating unwashed vegetables with infected feces
Eating raw infected meat (pig/sheep)

19

How long do cats typically shed immature toxoplasma gondii oocysts?

1-3 weeks; then they recover

20

How long does it take T. gondii oocysts to sporulate and become infectious?

1-5 days in the soil

21

What form of the protozoa (T. gondii) replicates within macrophages, and what phase will encyst in the muscle?

Tachyzoites - in intermediate host macrophages

Bradyzoites - encyst into muscular tissue or neurological tissues

22

By what methods are bradyzoites within muscle tissue rendered non-infectious?

Freezing for 7 days or by fully cooking

23

T/F: Oocysts of T. gondii are very resistant and can survive freezing

TRUE

can survive most disinfectants, freezing, drying

24

In who does T. gondii infections cause severe problems?

Immuno-compromised and pregnant women

infections are usually asymptomatic in immunocompetent adults and children

25

What is the control program for T. gondii in cats?

There is none - no good one

Control is by reducing risk of him infections

26

How can the risk of human infections of T. gondii be reduced?

Pregnant women can be tested serologically for antibodies
Buy cats that are less likely to be shedding
Prevent oocyst sporulation
reduce exposure

27

If you have a pregnant client with a cat, and no one else to scoop the litter box, what should you recommend she do?

She should scoop the litter box daily (decreasing the chance of sporulation to occur) it would be preferred to wear a protective mask while doing so

28

What is the term for diseases caused by migrating larvae in paratenic hosts?

Larval migrans

*remember that parasitic nematodes are almost always migratory during the larval stages

29

Almost every dog is infected at some time with what parasite?

Roundworms: Toxocara spp - canis, cati, vitulorum

30

What occurs in human toxocariasis? Who are most at risk?

Children between the ages of 1-4 (pica and geophagia increase risk)

Visceral larval migrans is most common but asymptomatic in most cases

**Ocular or neurologic migrans is rare