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Flashcards in Intro to Philosophy Quiz Deck (31)
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1

Why do we study philosophy #1

We don’t ask big questions

2

Why do we study philosophy #2

We are vulnerable to errors of common sense

3

Why do we study philosophy #3

We are mentally confused

4

#4

We have muddled ideas about what makes us happy

5

#5

We panic and lose perspective

6

Metaphysics

Branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of reality

Ie. what does it mean to exist?
How are things similar and different?

7

Epistemology

A branch of philosophy that deals with theories of knowledge

Ie. how can we prove to know something?
How do we know when a belief is justified?

8

Ethics

A branch of philosophy that deals with defining right and wrong behaviour

Ie. what is “right” and “wrong” behaviour?
What is the nature of good and evil?

9

Social and political philosophy

A branch of philosophy that deals with the role of the individual and government in society

Ie. what should the rights of the individual be?
How should governments function?

10

Cosmology

Branch that deals with the origin and evolution of the universe

Ie. what is the origin of the universe?
What is the purpose of the universe?

11

Theology

Branch that deals with the nature of God and the divine

Ie. what is the nature of God?
What does God deem to be good and evil?

12

Aesthetics

Branch that deals with the nature of beauty

Ie. what is the nature of beauty
How does one determine good art?

13

Premise

A claim that is the basis of an argument (meant to justify a conclusion)

14

Inference

The process of making a conclusion from the given premises (conclusion is inferred from premises, therefore argument is valid)

15

Syllogism

From Greek “propositions considered together”

16

Deductive argument

General premises —> specific premises (conclusion should be certain or valid)

17

Inductive argument

Specific information —> general statements (arguments should be strong, but cannot be considered true or sound)

18

Validity

When the premises are logically connected to the conclusion

19

Soundness

When an argument is true and the form is valid

20

Classical Greece

Prospered through agricultural surplus and wealth from trade = more leisure time to think and debate = pre-Socratic philosophers

21

Pre-Socratic philosophers: Theocentric vs rational ??

Rational

22

First philosopher ?

Thales of Miletus

- all matter created from water since it existed in solid, liquid, and air form

23

Anaximines if Miletus

- all matter created from air
-all water is condensed air and air created earth and fire

24

Heraclitus of Ephesus

- world is characterized by opposites
- world was in constant flux and change
- sensory perceptions are reliable

25

Empedocles of Akragas

- matter = earth wind water and fire

26

Anaximander of Miletus

- all things from the infinite
- all matter and nature ruled by laws
- existence of multiple worlds

27

Pythagoras

c2 = a2 + b2

Metempsychosis- transmigration of souls (immortal and entered new bodies after death)

28

The sophists

Charged money for education
Man can answer all question
Relied on rhetoric (art of persuasive speaking or writing)
Best argument = most persuasive
Persuasiveness sometimes values over truth

29

Sorites paradox

It is impossible to create a heap of sand or a crowd of people because adding one won’t achieve that

—> heap and crowd are vague terms
—> solve by defining what a heap or crowd is

30

Lottery paradox

No ticker will be the winning ticket since one assumes their chances of winning and their friends are nearly impossible

—> we apply low chance of winning to everyone, when there’s in fact a certain winner
—> solve by considering the odds unlikely, but not impossible