Intro to Hematologic Malignancies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Intro to Hematologic Malignancies Deck (22)
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1

Is there such a thing as a benign hematologic neoplasm?

no

2

Leukemia

Transforming event often takes place in a multipotent stem cell

chief manifesation is involvement of the blood and marrow (affecting both lymphoid and myeloid, mature/immature)

3

Acute Leukemia

Hematopoetic malignancy, rapid progressing. Cells take over marrow

Comes to clinical attention because of low platelets, neutrophils, RBCs, etc

Transforming event in marrow that causes one lineage of cells to be unable to differentiate (plus other genetic hits that cause rapid proliferation)

Cells are often blasts

4

Chronic Leukemia

Refers to either Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

Slow progression
Increase WBC due to accumulation of mature WBCs

No symptoms, usually

Prolonged course, can transform to more aggressive disease

5

High Grade Vs. Low Grade

High Grade- Rapidly enlarging, aka acute, very high WBC with near replacement of normal cells in marrow and blood

Low Grade- Mildly enlarged lymph nodes. aka chronic, noticed incidentally

6

t(9;22)

Philedelphia chromosome, CML

7

Three Viruses that can cause lymphoma

Epstein Barr Virus

Human T Cell Leukemia Virus-1 (HTLV-1)

Kaposi Sarcoma Herpesvirus/Human Herpesvirus 8 (KSHV/HHV-8)

8

Epstein Barr Virus

Hodgkin Lymphoma, Kurkitt Lymphoma, and some non-Hodgkin lymphomas

9

Human T Cell Leukemia Virus-1 (HTLV-1)

Adult T-Cell Leukemia/lymphoma

10

Kaposi Sarcoma Herpesvirus/Human Herpesvirus 8 (KSHV/HHV-8

Primary Effusion Lymphoma

11

Contrast the incedences of leukemia and lymphoma in adult populations versus childhood populations.

Leukemia is the most common type of childhood cancer, and lymphoma is the third most common childhood cancer by type. In adults, not at much.

12

Recall the currently recommended classification system for hematologic malignancies

WHO classification in 2008

13

Terminology- Myeloid

Resemble cells of granulocytic, monocytic, erythroid, megakaryocytic and/or mast cell lineages

14

Terminology- Lymphoid

Resememble cells of the B/T and NK cell lineages

15

Multiparameter Classification System

-Microscopic appearance
-Histologic growth patterns in marrow lymph or tissue
-Specific cytogenetic or molecular findings
-Relative amount of malignant cells in marrow/blood
-Presence/absence of certain cell markers

16

Lymphoma

chief manifestation is a solid mass tumor, derived from lympocytes or their precursors. Normally in lymph nodes but can be sometimes extranodal

17

Extramedullary Myloid Tumor

Heme malignancy, solid mass of myeloid cells and their

18

Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS)

Group of coniditions where marrow is ovetaken by neoplastic clone. Dysplasia, leading to persisntly low blood counts in 1+ lineages

19

Myeloproliferative Neoplasm (MPN)

Clone takes over marrow, and over produces cells of 1+ lineages, leading to hyperplasia and increased blood count

20

Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma

Neoplastic cells derived from B CElls

21

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

All the different malignancies of mature lymphocytes, subdivided to B cell derived NHLs (majority)
T cell/NK Cell NHLs (minority)

22

Plasma Cell Neoplasm

Inclues MGUS, plasmacytoma, multiple myeloma