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NZQA Plant and animal behaviour > Intraspecific relationships > Flashcards

Flashcards in Intraspecific relationships Deck (21)
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What is a territory?

An area where an animal lives and defends


What is a home range?

An area where an animal will search for food and water that it cant find in its own territory. This isn't defended land.


What is a lek?

A lek is where males come together and preform mating displays often competitively to attract females.


What is the definition of an ecological niche?

The ecological niche is all the factors of an animals living situation. It is all the physical & biological conditions of a population in its habitat.


What kind of things does an ecological niche consider?

Food source, predators, prey, reproduction, interactions and survival.


What would happen if two animals had the same ecological niche?

Competition. In most cases one species will have a slight advantage over the other and end up dominant while the other may risk extinction and undergo likely changes to its ecological niche.


What is an intraspecific relationship?

An infraspecific relationship is the interactions with other animals in the same species.


What are some examples of things animals may compete over?

Food, mates, resources and space.


What are the advantages and disadvantages of living in groups?

Advantages> Safety in numbers from predators, help each other find resources, puts mates in closer proximity.

Disadvantages> Disease spread is more common, Competition for food and space, increased vulnerability to predators as more noticeable.


What is a linear hierarchie?

Linear hierarchies is a ranking system from least dominant to most.


What is a complex hierarchie?

Complex hierarchies involve many groups in rankings controlled by a dominant alpha member.


What is the purpose of establishing hierarchies?

Hierarchies are useful for reducing fighting between members of the species by having ranks so that each member knows it place. This reduces not only fighting but competition for food and other resources.


What is monogamy?

Having one partner per breeding season or life.


What is polygamy?

Having multiple mates.


In which situations would monogamy be better?

In a species which requires full commitment from both parents to raise the offspring.


In which situations would polygamy be better?

Situations in which a population requires an increase in genetic diversity OR when commitment to raise offspring isn't required.


What is the R-strategy for reproduction?

When parents have high numbers of offspring.


What is the K-strategy for reproduction?

When parents have a low number of offspring


What are the pros and cons of R-strategy.

PROS> Increased chance of some offspring survival, low energy required to raise offspring.

CONS> Offspring are more likely to die from starvation or predators.


What are the pros and cons of K-strategy

PROS>Most offspring are likely to survive

CONS>Parents spend large amounts of time and energy.


What are some examples of courtship rituals that might be used by animals?

Songs, dance, fights and appearance