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Flashcards in Integration of Female Reproduction Deck (37)
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1

What is primary amenorrhea?

Absence of menses in female by age 17

2

What is secondary amenorrhea?

Cessation of menses longer than 6 months

3

What are the most common causes of secondary amenorrhea?

Pregnancy
Menopause
Hyperprolactinemia with excessive PRL

4

What is oligomenorrhea?

Infrequent periods with length >35 days between menses

5

What is dysmenorrhea?

Painful menses related to uterine contractions

6

What is hirsutism?

Inappropriate hair growth in androgen sensitive areas

7

What is virilization?

Androgen stimulation with deep voice/balding/male features

8

What is a possible cause of oligomenorrhea?

Intense exercise

9

When does PMS occur?

Late luteal phase

10

What are the causes of polycystic ovarian syndrome?

The main cause of PCOS is insulin resistance and obesity, both which are also effects of the condition. PCOS also leads to infertility.

11

How does insulin resistance lead to PCOS?

High insulin stimulates androgen production (causing infertility), increased conversion to estrogens (weight gain).

12

What causes the cysts in PCOS?

Follicle development is impaired and ovulation isn’t completed so follicles degenerate into cysts.

13

What are the treatments for PCOS?

Weight Loss
Smoking Cessation
Metformin (for insulin resistance)

14

What must occur to have fertilization?

Sperm must penetrate the zona pellucida of the egg.

15

What are the steps that lead to fertilization?

Sperm Capacitation
Acrosomal Reaction
Zona Reaction

16

What occurs with sperm capacitation and what is the purpose of it?

Changes occur in properties of the sperm as they traverse the female tract and these changes allow for the penetration of the egg.

17

What occurs with acrosomal reaction and what is the purpose of it?

Release of the proteolytic enzymes and the sperm binds ZP3 which leads to increased [Ca2+] in the cell that will lead to the fusion of the sperm and egg and the exocytosis of the sperm contents.

18

What occurs with zona reaction and what is the purpose of it?

Prevents polyspermy with sperm penetration leading to the exocytosis of oocyte internal cortical vesicles that will harden the glycoproteins of the zona pellucida and prevent successive sperm penetration.

19

What are the essential steps of fertilization?

1. Exocytosis of sperm contents
2. Exocytosis of oocyte vesicles

20

When does the second meiotic division of the oocyte occur?

Same increase in [Ca2+] that triggers the cortical reaction also triggers completion of the second meiotic division and the second polar body is released leaving oocyte with haploid, unduplicated chromasomes.

This occurs during fertilization.

21

What is the function of E2 in sperm transport?

E2 primes the female tract to aid sperm transport to the oviduct

22

What is the function of cGMP in sperm transport?

cGMP increases velocity and direction of sperm

23

What is the function of decreased [H+] in sperm transport?

Decreased [H+] of vagina facilitates sperm motility

24

What change in the cervical mucus occurs and why?

Decreased viscosity of cervical mucus increases sperm access to uterine cavity

25

Describe oocyte transport.

After its release it is taken into the oviduct by the fimbriae and then the ampulla will churn to promote random egg/sperm interactions.

26

How does blastocyst transport occur?

E2 will cause isthmus contraction in the oviduct and delay the transport of the blastocyst and an increase in progesterone will relax the myometrium to allow passage.

27

What are the steps of implantation?

Adhesion
Penetration
Invasion

28

What occurs in adhesion?

Zona pellucida dissolves (egg hatches) under the control of progesterone

29

What causes the bonding of endometrial and blastocyst cells to themselves?

IL-1 from the blastocyst triggers increase in integrins which bond these cells to like cells

30

What is the function of osteopontin?

Binds integrins of endometrium and blastocysts together as a bridge

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