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1

Types of movement

Discrete
Serial
Continuous

2

Arcadia Movement Model

Activity
Environment
Personal Factors
Motion
Force
Motor Control
Energy

3

CASSS Activity Analysis

C - Control

A - Amount of movement

S - Speed of movement

S - Symmetry of movement

S - Symptom provocation

4

Review of Systems (ROS)

Brief way to examine the body systems to identify underlying problems

Cardiovascular/pulmonary, musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, integumentary, cognition/communication

5

Pulse

The blood in the artery created by contraction of the left ventricle during a cardiac cycle

6

Parameters of Pulse

Rate - # of pulsations per minute

Rhythm - pattern of pulsations, important for determining health

Quality - the force created by ejected blood against the arterial wall

7

Pulse oximetry

Measures arterial blood oxygenation, updated with each pulse wave

8

What PulseOx value would suggest supplemental oxygen might be needed?

Below 90% saturation

9

3 things that can influence pulse

Age- HR generally decreases and stabilizes with age

Sex- males tend to have slightly lower HR than females

Medications - some can affect HR (EX: beta blockers lower HR)

10

3 things that can influence pulse oximetry

Alterations in heart function - can reduce cardiac output and oxygenation

Nail polish - can interfere with measurement

Artificial acrylic nails - can interfere with measurement

11

Parameters of Respiration

Rate, depth, rhythm, sound

12

What do blood pressure numbers represent?

Top = systolic
bottom = diastolic

13

Systolic blood pressure

measures the force of blood against artery walls while ventricles squeeze, pushing blood out to the rest of the body

top number

14

Diastolic blood pressure

measures the force of blood against artery walls as heart relaxes and the ventricles are allowed to refill with blood

bottom number

15

3 things that can influence blood pressure

Blood volume - less blood leads to less pressure, and vice versa

Age - varies, rises after birth, peaks in puberty, levels to adult BP

Exercise - increases cardiac output which increases BP

16

Prehypertension ranges

120-139 / 80-89

17

Stage 1 hypertension ranges

140-159 / 90-99

18

Stage 2 hypertension ranges

160+ / 100+

19

Common places to assess pulse

Radial - on wrist, slightly lateral

Brachial - above inner elbow crook, slightly medial

Carotid - on neck, under the back corner of your jawline

20

Places where simple squamous epithelium is found

Alveoli, capillaries

21

Why type of epithelial tissues lines the lumen

Pseudostratified columnar

22

Where is pseudostratified columnar epithelium found

Trachea, respiratory tract

23

Disorders of Healing

2 disorders of CT fibers within the skin;

1) hypertrophic scar
2) keloid scar formation

24

Hypertrophic scar (HTS)

more common at younger ages (10-30s)

can happen anywhere on body

associated with excessive tension and response to infection in the wound

25

Keloid scar formation

more common in non-Caucasian skin

more common in head and neck/chest area

associated with excessive tension and response to infection in the wound

26

Assistive device stability

(Least → Most Stability)

Cane
Crutches
Walker

27

When to use cane

minor problems with balance/stability

some weakness in trunk/legs

assisting elderly while having independence

28

When to use crutches

may be used if you can’t put any weight on your leg/foot

29

When to use walker

significant problems with balance/stability

total knee or hip replacement

need to transfer some weight off of lower extremities

30

Fitting for crutches

Match roughly to patient height

Adjust handles to get their arms to about 20 degrees of flexion