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Taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers

Enclosure

1

To separate iron from its ore

Smelt

2

Scottish engineer improved the efficiency of the steam engine making it the key source of power for the Industrial Revolution.
. Made Newcomen's steam engine more efficient
. Watt's invention was the power source to run factories and trains

James Watt

3

A drug that prevents pain during surgery

Anesthetic

4

. Process by which production shifted from hand tools to complex machinery
. The changes it brought gradually affected people's lives
. Population growth is one of the factors that led to IR

Industrial Revolution

5

. Worked by hand
. Lived in villages
. Grew their food
. Traveled by foot, horse, or boat

Life before 1750

6

Life after 1850

. Lived and worked in cities
. Bought food and clothes made elsewhere
. Traveled by train or steamboat

7

. Built dikes
. Combined small parcels to better use land
. Experimented with fertilizer
.

The Dutch

8

. Experimented with crop rotation
. Experimented with using different soils
. Jethro Tull- invented the seed drill
. Lord Charles Townshend- urged farmers to grow turnips which restored exhausted soil
. King George III (Farmer George)- wrote articles about his model farm near Windsor Castle

The British

9

. (1500s) Landowners enclosed land to pasture sheep and improve wool output
. (1700s) Landowners consolidated (combined) their farm holdings
. Larger farms were more efficient producing more food with less labor and cost

Enclosure greatly raised farm output

10

. Threw many poor farm workers off the land
. Small landowners couldn't compete
. Farm workers now went to cities to tend machines

The downfall of land enclosure

11

. Greater food production, less famine
. Better diet
. Medical care improved health
. Britain (1700) 5M - (1800) 9M
. Europe (1700) 120M - (1800) 180M

The Agriculture Revolution contributed to population explosion in Europe

12

Smelt iron using coal instead of charcoal
. The result was cheaper and better iron used to make steam engine parts

Andrew Darby

13

Invented a steam engine to pump water from mines

Thomas Newcomen

14

Harnessed to produce steam for power (1700s)

Coal

15

Messages could instantly be sent over long distances

Telegraph

16

Machines could stitch far faster than a seamstress

Sewing Machine

17

Reducing infections, saves lives

Antiseptic

18

Money to invest in enterprises

Capital

19

A business organization like shipping, mining, railroads, or factories

Enterprise

20

Someone who manages and assumes the financial risk of starting a new business

Entrepreneur

21

Example: cotton industry- took cotton, gave to peasants, who spun it into thread, and then wove it into cloth
Definition: a process- take a product, and put it out

Putting out system

22

Invented the cotton gin

Eli Whitney

23

A private road that charges a toll or fee to use

A turn pike

24

The site of the world's first major rail line (1830)

Liverpool to Manchester

25

. Changes in agriculture left farmers jobless
. Farmers moved to cities
. They provided labor for factories and coal mines

Why Britain led the Industrial Revolution

26

. They had plentiful natural resources
. They had skilled inventors and a ready work force
. They had a stable government that supported economic growth
. They had a powerful navy that protected trade

Why Britain poised for industrialization

27

Types of natural resources

. Natural ports
. Rivers
. Water for canals
. Access to the sea
. Coal
. Iron
They helped with the transportation of goods

28

Machines that changed the textile industry

. The flying shuttle- made weaving faster
. The spinning jenny (James Hargreaves)- spun several threads at once
. A water frame- used water to power the process
These machines doomed the putting out system

29

Factories

. Machines and workers brought together to produce large quantities of goods