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Flashcards in Industrial Organizational Psychology Deck (107)
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91

When is group decision making superior to individual decision making?

How does group think occur? According to Janus group think is characterized by? How can your reduce groupthink?

Group polarization is?

When the group is heterogeneous, and when the task is complex
Group think is likely to occur when the leader is highly directive and when the group is working under stress/cohesive.

Group think is characterized by: illusions of invulnerability and unanimity (agreement by all involved); collective rationalization; unquestioned morality; excessive negative stereotyping; strong pressure to conform; self appointed "mindguards"; self censorship to dissenting views

Can reduce groupthink: encourage skepticism and dissent; devils advocate, bring in an outside opinion, reduce time pressure, not stating opinion before coming to a group decision.

Group polarization is the tendency for groups to make more extreme decisions in the direction of the group then they would of made individually, -- contributed to social comparison, mutual reinforcement and diffusion of responsibility. (risky shift-- direction of riskiness)

92

Dawis and Lofquist's theory of Work Adjustment describes satisfaction, tenure and other job outcomes as the result of correspondence between worker and his work environment on what two dimensions?

satisfaction (degree to which characteristics of the job meet the needs and values of the worker
satisfactoriness ( extent to which the worker's skills meet job skill demands)

93

Criterion deficiency refers to?

Contamination? how can this occur and what is the result?

Criterion deficiency refers to the degree to which a criterion measure fails to measure all aspects of the ultimate (conceptual) criterion.
A criterion measure can have high reliability but low validity - i.e., it can give consistent results but measure only some aspects of the ultimate criterion.
Contamination: limits relevance and occurs when actual criterion assess factors other than those it was designed to measure.
Can occur when the rater knows the employee's predictor performance
likely to artificially inflate the predictor's criterion related validity coeff.
.

94

What level of personal is assessed usually through assessment centers? And what are some of the techniques used?

What is the best situational test?

Evaluate managerial level personael usually to determine if lower level managers can be effective high level managers. or identify a manger's needs for training and development.
usually evaluated by a team on a number of dimensions (organization, decision-making, flexibility)

Techniques: structured interviews, written tests and situational tests

in the basket is best known situational test as well as leaderless group discussion. -having 5 or 6 participants work together without a leader to solve a job related problem

95

In regard to career decision and development, Roe focuses on?

Tiedman and O'Hara theory of career focuses on?

Krumboltz?

Brousseau and Driver look at emphasize a person's career concept in the decision making dynamics. Career concept refers to? Their model distinguishes between 4 career concepts that vary in 3 dimensions of frequency of job change, direction of change and type of change in job content: what are the names of the 4 career concepts?

Dawis and Lofquist: Theory of Work Adjustment: job decisions should be based off of satisfaction and satisfactoriness which are? According to Dawis, England, and Lofquist's (1964) theory of work adjustment, the probability that a person will be forced out of the work environment is inversely related to his or her:

Roe (1972) focuses on the impact of basic needs on career development.

Ego identity development is a focus of Tiedeman and O'Hara's (1963) theory of career development.

Krumbolts: social learning theory of career decision making: reinforcement and Bandura's theory: development requires exposure to learning experiences and decisions are influenced by;_ genetic (special abilities-art),_ environment (job opportunities), _learning experiences (instrumental; learning based on rewards) and associative ( classical conditioning) and _Task-approach skills that are the result of interaction between the other three. Does NOT match individual to job characteristics but focuses on continual learning and self development

Brouasseau and Driver :a person's career concept refers to how a person envisions his/her ideal career path. _Linear career concept: progressive upward movement; Expert Career_ lifelong commitment, specialty focused; _Spiral Career concept: envisions periodic moves across occupational specialty: _ Transitory career concept: ideal career as involving frequent job changes in unrelated fields.

Satisfaction: degree to which the job matches the needs and values of the individual
Satisfactoriness: extent to which the workers skills match the skill demand of the job.
-The theory of work adjustment predicts that job tenure is a joint function of satisfaction and satisfactoriness. Satisfaction refers to the correspondence between an employee's vocational needs and values and the reinforcement systems provided by the job, while satisfactoriness is a function of the correspondence between an employee's abilities and the ability requirements of the job.

-satisfactoriness is the extent to which an employee is able to perform a job. When an employee cannot perform the job because his/her abilities do not meet ability requirements of the job, the employee is likely to be fired.

96

What are the different methods of training?
What are the psychological factors that affect training

trainings-nonparticipative (watching lecture) participative (individual: programmed instruction-booklets, software can train individuals all at the same time)
Off the job
simulation training-vestibule training
On the job
Job rotation: management
Cross Training

Individual differences: trainability (cog. test, biodata) difference between trainees will intensify- more skilled individual get more skills
certain expectations
self efficacy: idea that you can do it and expectation that you will succeed
Motivation: can be improved by involving in decisions in training program
Locus of control- internal affects motivation

97

OF the big 5 personality traits which most predicts job performance and why?

Conscientiousness: level of responsibility, dependability, persistence, self-control and achievement motivation. best predictor of job performance across different jobs, job settings and criterion measures.

98

What are the three concepts to Super's theory of career development?

What are the five stages of Life Span in Super's theory?

According to Tiedman, and O'Hara's career decision-making model, vocational identity is an ongoing process and tied to ______? and described in terms of _______ psychosocial stages which involves a repetitive process of __________ and ________?
Further they propose that their are two phases to the decision making process which are? which of these stages includes: induction, reformation, and integration? Career counseling is to helping people become aware of factors that contribute to their decisions they make in each stage so they are better at making choices.

Self-Concept: changes over the life span but becomes more stable with age.
Life Span:
Life Space: Roles of the RAINBOW

Life Span
1-Growth (0-14)
2-Exploration (14 to 25)
3- Establishment (25 to 45)
4- Maintenance (45 to 65)
5- Disengagement (65 over)
G>E>E>M>D

Tied to Ego: Erickson; differentiation and integration.

Anticipation phase-exploration, crystallization, choice and specification: explores career possibilities and makes a choice
implementation and adjustment phase: which consists of the three stages: induction, reformation, and integration - becomes an established worker: achieves a balance between demand of work and his/her needs
--they are reversible.

99

What are some approaches to evaluating the effectiveness of the training program?

Krikpatrick' s four levels of criteria:
1- Reaction Criteria: did they like it? are reactions to the program linked to job performance?
2- Learning criteria: how much did they actually learn
3- Behavioral criteria: did performance change once they were back on the job
4- Results criteria: did it meet the organization's goals: financial/non financial

Utility Analysis: Utility refers to the cost effectiveness of training and can be calculated using the following formula: $U = T x N x d x SD - N x C where:$U = utility measured in terms of dollar value T = number of years duration of the training program's effects on performance N = number of people trained d = effect size of the training program SD = standard deviation of job performance in dollars C = per person cost of training: T x d x C is part of the formula for calculating utility or dollar values according to the formula.

Formative and Summative Evaluation: Formative- conducted while being developed: can make modification before implemented.
Summative: after the program was implemented- can determine how much learned and cost

100

What are the different types of work schedules and how do they impact the employee? positive and negative

Compressed work week: decrease number of days but increase number of hours
positive: supervisor ratings of work performance, employee overall job satisfaction and employee satisfaction with work schedule.
-does not strongly impact objective measures of job performance or on absenteeism (lower but moderated by physical and emotional exhaustion)

Flextime: choice between when to begin and end work with a core time of when all employees must meet.
positive effect on employee's productivity, overall job satisfaction and satisfaction with work schedule. and absenteeism does not have a direct impact on self ratings: less stress and decreased work-family conflict.

Shift work: set work shifts are preferred over rotating shifts. as rotating shift disrupt circadian rhythm and increase fatigue, sleepiness, concentration and cause more errors.
Of the three shifts, the swing shift is the most negative ( 3:00 to 11:00 impact on social roles and family. However, the night shift is associated with the most health social and work related problems which is partially attributed to sleep deprivation. -- employees who choose to work the night shift have better health.

101

In terms of work, high levels of stress not only reduce job productivity but?

Karasek's demand-control (job strain) model identifies what two contributors of job stress.

What are the two most stressors that create more stress then experiencing a traumatic event?

are also linked to increase sabotage, absenteeism, and turnover and reduced job satisfaction.

Karasek- Job Demand: requirements of the job in terms of work load, time pressures, and responsibilities
Job Control: decision latitude and refers to the worker's autonomy and discretion for using different skills.
the combination of high job demand and low job control produces the most stress and is associated with job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, depression and other health problems. --machine pace jobs and service jobs

Most stressful: marriage (death of spouse, divorce, marital separation) most- everyday hassle.

102

In terms of incremental validity, which of the following situations most supports the use of a new predictor?

The degree to which a new selection technique will increase decision-making accuracy depends on several factors including the base rate (proportion of correct decisions without the new technique) and the selection ratio (ratio of applicants to job openings).

A moderate base rate suggests that there's room for improvement and, therefore, that a new predictor is likely to increase decision-making accuracy. Also, the situation is optimal when there are many applicants to choose from (a low selection ratio).

103

The Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) is useful for:

The Position Analysis Questionnaire provides information on six dimensions of worker activity (e.g., mental processes, relationships).

The PAQ is a quantitative, worker-oriented method of collecting data for the purpose of job analysis.

conducting a job analysis.

104

Krumboltz's (1996) theory of career decision-making emphasizes which of the following?

Krumboltz's social learning theory differs from other prominent theories of career development and decision-making in that it does NOT focus on matching an individual's characteristics to the characteristics of the job.

Krumboltz emphasizes the importance of continual learning and self-development, which enable individuals to respond effectively to constantly changing work environments.

105

A primary assumption underlying the use of survey feedback as a method of organizational development is that:

Survey feedback involves collecting data about an organization, providing the information to employees in small group meetings, and then having employees analyze the identified problems and find solutions to them.
A primary assumption underlying the technique known as survey feedback is that, for change to occur, employees must be familiar with the organization's strengths and weaknesses. For this reason, it involves including employees in all steps of the process.

106

Intercept bias is occurring when scores on a predictor:

Intercept bias is another name for unfairness, which is identified in the EEOC's Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures as a cause of adverse impact.
In a scatterplot, the intercept is the point at which the regression line intersects the Y-axis. An intercept bias occurs when the regression lines for different groups of examinees intersect the Y-axis at different points, which means that the predictor systematically overpredicts or under predicts the performance of members of a specific group.

note:
slope bias which is another name for differential validity and is another potential cause of adverse impact. related to the criterion performance of one group of examinees but not of another group.

107

In conflict resolution, the primary role of a mediator is to:

-help disputants consider alternative solutions to the problem.
Disputants are often inflexible with regard to their own idea of the best solution to a problem, and an important task for a mediator is to increase disputants' flexibility regarding alternatives. One way to achieve this goal is to suggest alternatives.
-third person comes in when bargaining deadlocks: a neutral party. _duck clarifies the issues and opens lines of communication-
Three stages:
setting the stage (clarifying ground rules and collecting information)
problem solving (posing issues and generating alternatives)
achieving a workable agreement ( pressuring the parties to reach an agreement)