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Flashcards in Industrial Organizational Psychology Deck (107)
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Path-goal theory is classified as a ________ theory because it proposes that the best style depends on the nature of the situation.

According to path-goal theory, the best leadership style depends on ?

What are some leadership styles based on this theory?

contingency (reinforcement and Bandura)

certain characteristics of the task (e.g., level of ambiguity, structure) and of the workers (e.g., traits, abilities)

(directive, supportive, participative, or achievement-oriented) depends on certain characteristics of the task and the subordinates.


House's path-goal theory distinguishes between what four leadership styles:

When a task is difficult and the workers are experienced and prefer control over their work, what would be a good leadership style?

On the other hand, when a task is unstructured and the workers are inexperienced what style would be more effective?

House's path-goal theory distinguishes between four leadership styles: directive, supportive, participative, and achievement-oriented.

According to path-goal theory, the optimal leadership style depends on certain characteristics of the worker (e.g., self-confidence and locus of control) and the work situation (e.g., degree of task challenge and ambiguity).

Path-goal theory identifies worker and situational characteristics as determinants of the optimal leadership style

-Achievement oriented


What is the difference between Ultimate vs. Actual Criterion?

Ultimate (concept)
Actual ( measure)


Research investigating the relationship between leader intelligence and leader effectiveness has found a __________ relationship between these two variables.

Perhaps surprisingly, the research has found that scores on cognitive ability tests are poor predictors of leader effectiveness.

F. Fiedler and T. Link note that prior reviews of the research report median correlations of .20 to .30 between various measures of intellectual ability and leadership and managerial performance --weak positive


Research on Night, swing and day shifts found that?

the night shift is associated with the highest accident rates, but the swing shift has the most detrimental impact on social relations.
Studies comparing the impact of the various work shifts have not produced entirely consistent results. However, it does appear that the night shift is associated with the highest accident rates and lowest performance, apparently as the result of sleep deprivation. In contrast, the swing shift has the most negative impact on family and other social relationships.
Freedom of choice: those individuals who choose to work the nightshift has fewer physical and psychological problems


Peer evaluations have been found to be accurate in predicting training success and subsequent promotions

allows for a better idea of individuals strength, immediate feedback and accountability


Organizational Development Interventions are based on behavioral science principles and are techniques to facilitate planed change. What are some commonly used interventions?

Quality of Work Life Program: programs that are designed to humanize work and the work environment- emphasize employee empowerments -enable workers to set own goals, decisions and resolve problems (limited) focus on participation and involvement- lower level jobs
Quality Circles; small volunteer group that discuss on the job problems and solutions. impacts attitude but not job performance. QCs consist of a small team of employees who work together on a particular job and meet voluntarily to discuss solutions to job productivity problems. They make suggestions to management about solutions to work-related problems.
Self-Management Work Teams: autonomous work groups that have skills and training to perform the group task. Work together as a unit with leadership rotating from one member to the next. do: hiring, budgeting, and other decisions made by managers. Makes decisions not suggestions- trained in teamthink: encouraged divergent views, discuss doubts, and ethical determinations.
Process Consultation: optimizes interactions with on another_ consultant observes employees during meetings and shares info to help improve their social interactions. looks at behaviors and targets behaviors related o communication, leadership, decision-making, conflict resolutions, and roles.
Survey Feedback -Data collection, Data feedback, and action planning
Total Quality MANAGEMENT: Focuses on COSTUMER satisfaction, employee involvement and empowerment, continuous improvement in quality of goods and services and ongoing measurement of performance. emphasis teamwork and decision making in all department- flatter (horizontal) hierarchy more work teams and less managers.


Work-Family conflict is when the role demands of career and family are incompatible because work interferes with family. Conflicts between work and family results in?

What are some gender differences?

Do women benefit from working outside of the home?

reduced job, marital and work satisfaction, job burnout, job turnover, decrease productivity, and mental and physical health problems.

conflict is more stressful for women
men experience more work family conflict associated with work expectations
women- family expectations

Women benefit from working outside of the home-


How does training program development begin? And what are the four elements involved?

program training development begins with a needs assessment (needs analysis) .

Four elements of a needs assessment are: organizational analysis to identify goals and determine if training is needed (2) task (job) analysis identify what must be done to perform the job (3) person analysis to determine which employees need training and the knowledge skills and abilities to do the job (4) demographic analysis- to identify training needs of different groups.


What are the three types of organizational commitment?
what does research indicate?

Affective: emotional attachment
Continuance: cost of leaving ( income and discounted childcare)
Normative: sense of obligation (help the family)
Research found that: affective commitment is most consistently related to turnover, absenteeism, organizational citizenship, job performance, personal stress, and work and family conflict
continuance: turnover.


What are the effects of poor job satisfaction?

poor performance-this relationship is weak
Turnover, absenteeism, and tardiness, strongest relationship is between satisfaction and turnover moderated by unemployment-
Physical and mental health- emotional burnout: lowered self esteem, depression and anxiety


Theories of career choice and development can be categorized in terms of four basic types. The theories of Tiedeman and O'Hara (1963) and Tiedeman and Miller-Tiedeman (1984) are examples of the __________

Developmental --


Group (response) polarization occurs when

__________effect suggests that people reduce their effort on a group task when they observe that their contributions to a group are dispensable and that the group will succeed without them


____________ is like group polarization but includes only the "risky" end of the decision continuum and becomes a potential problem when employees work together to derive a work-related decision

Group (response) polarization occurs when a person makes a more extreme decision in a group than he/she would have made alone.

The free-rider effect suggests that people reduce their effort on a group task when they observe that their contributions to a group are dispensable and that the group will succeed without them.

Groupthink refers to a suspension of critical and objective thinking that can occur under certain circumstances in group decision-making. Although groupthink can result in more extreme decisions, this isn't necessarily so.

The risky shift is like group polarization but includes only the "risky" end of the decision continuum. The risky shift is the tendency for decisions made by a group to be less conservative (more risky) than the decisions made by individuals working alone. For additional information on the risky shift and related phenomena,


What is one of the problems with job enrichment?

Job enrichment involves redesigning a job so that it provides workers with opportunities to satisfy their motivator needs - e.g., opportunities for autonomy, responsibility, recognition, and advancement.

The research suggests that there are individual differences with regard to the acceptance and effectiveness of job enrichment. For example, young, well-educated employees are likely to respond favorably to job enrichment, while employees preferring stability and security to responsibility are likely to respond unfavorably.


What are the theories and models of leadership,

Contingency Theory--leadership effectiveness depends on their interaction with leader's style (which is fixed and can be assessed with the LPC scale: relationship oriented or task oriented and favorableness of the situation- (positive relationships = greater power), nature of task-(more structured, greater influence)- leader's position on power- (greater the rewards he/she can offer- more influence): Fiedler's LPC scale categorizes leaders as "high LPC" (person-oriented) or "low LPC" (task-oriented). His theory proposes that high LPC leaders are most effective when the situation is moderately favorable, while low LPC leaders are best when the situation is highly favorable or unfavorable.
Cognitive Resource Theory
Path Goal Theory; best leader can help a subordinate find a path that allows them to fulfill their goals.
Situational Leadership: leadership style that characterized by different combinations of task and relationship orientation.
Vroom-Yetton_Jargo Normative Decision making model- 11 situational factors and 5 basic decisions: The Vroom-Yetton-Jago model distinguishes between autocratic, consultative, and group decision-making leader styles and proposes that the best one depends on certain characteristics of the situation including time constraints, the importance of subordinate commitment to the decision, and the structure of the task. The model includes a decision-tree to help leaders choose the optimal style for their situation


High levels of job stress is related to what?

Karasek's demand-control (job strain) model identifies job demands and job control as primary contributors to job stress. Job demand and job control refer to?

What produces the most stress?

reduce job productivity, increase sabotage, absenteeism, and turnover, reduce job satisfaction.

Job demand refers to requirements of the job in terms of work load, time pressures, and responsibility.

Job Control: or decision latitude: refers to worker's autonomy, and discretion for using different skills.

combination of High job demand and Low job control produce the most stress; associated with job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, depression and other health problems: example-nurse, service industry.


job enrichment impacts? how does this vary?
What is the difference between job enrichment and job enlargement?

Job satisfaction
Varied- impacts more: young educated, skills to do the job, high needs of achievement (nACH)
Anxiety provoking: Low nACH,

enrichment- vertical loading give more higher level jobs
enlargement- horizontal loading-increasing tasks variety of tasks but not responsibility or more autonomous
Both targets upper level needs- reduce boredom.
job enrichment, enlargement and job rotation eliminate boredom and alienation


What is the difference between the Hawthorne effect, Halo effect , central tendency error and contrast effect?

Hawthorne" improvement in job performance resulting from participating in a study
Halo effect- error in reasoning in which an impression formed from a single trait or characteristic is allowed to influence multiple judgement or ratings of unrelated factors. (thorndike: taller more attractive officers where rated higher: Asch: primacy effect: positive traits presented first where rated more positive, negative first, more negative))


The Americans with Disabilities Act:

Although ADA permits only post-offer, pre-employment medical exams, it explicitly excludes drug testing as a medical exam. In other words, drug testing is not prohibited at any time during pre-employment or employment.
permits drug testing before or after a job offer has been made.


Expectancy theory (Porter, Lawler)
High expectance means:
High instrumentality means:
Positive valence:

Expectance: belief that high effort leads to successful task performance
performance leads to reward
rewards are desirable (value)


Five participants in a research study work individually at computer terminals to generate solutions to novel problems. Each participant in the study simultaneously reviews the suggested solutions of other participants while entering his or her own solutions. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of technology on:


Brainstorming was originally developed as a way to improve group performance on difficult or novel tasks. Although the research on brainstorming has generally found that people come up with more and better solutions when working alone than when working as a group, there is some evidence that brainstorming by computer improves its outcomes.


How do you evaluate training programs? What are the approaches?

Kirkpatrik's Four level criteria- reaction, learning, behavior, and results
Utility Analysis: mathematical equation to estimate gains and losses
Formative vs. Summative evaluations-formative (while it is forming) being developed Summative (summed up) after the program has been implemented. dtermine how much learned and cost


Expectancy Theory


High expectancy: belief high effort equal successful performance
Successful performance leads to rewards
rewards have value


A personnel director decides to raise a selection test's cutoff score when using the test to assist in hiring decisions. Most likely the personnel director has made this decision in order to:

Raising the predictor cutoff score decreases the number of true and false positives and increases the number of true and false negatives.

Most likely, a personnel director would raise the predictor cutoff to decrease the number of false positives since these individuals "cost the company money" (i.e., they would be hired on the basis of their test scores but would be unsuccessful on the job).


What are Maslows 5 needs?

physiological, safety, social, esteem, self-actualization


_____ and ___________distinguish between the four career concepts listed in the question and describes them in terms of three dimensions: frequency of job change, direction of change, and type of change in job content.
They described a career concept as ____, _____, ____ or __________

Brousseau and Driver

a person's career concept can be described as linear, expert, spiral, or transitory.


Subjective Criterion Measures are categorized into Relative (comparative) techniques and Absolute techniques. Relative _____ while absolute _____.
What is an advantage of the relative technique and what is a disadvantage? Are subjective techniques most susceptble to rater bias?

Name some relative techniques?

Relative techniques require the rater to compare. While absolute provide information on the ratee's performance without reference or comparison.
advantage of relative is it can help alleviate rater bias. however, the disadvantage is that is forces the rater to place some ratee's at high or low performance even when all or most employees are performing at about the same level-- they are prohibited by law for most federal jobs, most employees do not like them, and they are less useful than absolute measures for obtaining information needed to provide employee's specific feedback.
- yes
Relative techniques; pair comparison-rater compares each ratee with every other ratee in pairs on one or more dimensions of jib performance: cumbersome to use as ratees increase
Forced Distribution
Critical Incident Technique: provides useful feedback, disadvantage: development requires close supervision of employees and accurate record keeping. it address only critical (extreme) job behaviors and does not indicate frequency or degree.
Forced-Choice rating scale: rater considers two or four alternatives that are considered to be about equally in terms of desirability and rater selects the one that best describes the ratee. reduces rater bias, time consuming to develop and disliked by raters
Graphic Rater Scale: likert scale that ranges from excellent to poor, highly susceptible to rater bias improved accuracy with anchored points.
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)


What are the principles of effective training?

What conditions need to be met to have improved on the job performance?

-Provide feedback as soon as possible
-Foster overlearning: good for information that is recalled infrequently or under stress
-Provide frequent opportunities for active practice: to apply info and practice skills
-Provide opportunities for Distributed Practice: practice that is spaced over time. good for tasks involving motor skills and memorizing
-Choose appropriate learning focus: whole learning- low complexity and high organization; Part learning high complexity and low organization
-Promote transfer of training:
------promotes improved on the job training and occurs when degree of similarity between learning and performance environment are maximized: identical elements, training includes exposure to a variety of examples, skills acquired through training are reinforce on the job


What are the different theories and approach to Career Development and career choice?

The vocational identity theory proposed by Tiedeman and colleagues as well as Super's theory represents a ___________approach.

While, Parson's (1939) and Holland's (1988) theories are ______________ approaches.

Roe's (1984) theory emphasizes the role of ____________ and __________. A person's occupational choice is the result of genetic factors and __________. She distinguishes what 3 types of parent child relationships? Roe suggests that early relationship with one's parents produces a basic orientation?

The vocational identity theory proposed by Tiedeman and colleagues is classified as a developmental approach. (Super's theory also represents this approach.

Parson's (1939) and Holland's (1988) theories are trait-oriented approaches.

Roe's (1984) theory emphasizes the role of personality and Maslow's basic needs.
early childhood experiences
1-emotional concentration (demandedness and overprotectiveness)
2- avoidance (neglect or rejection)
3- acceptance (loving and casual)

"toward other people" and "not toward other people"


Janis (1972) coined the term _______ to describe the suspension of critical thinking that occurs in highly cohesive groups.

How do you mitigate the effect of this?

Janis (1972) coined the term "groupthink" to describe the suspension of critical thinking that occurs in highly cohesive groups. Groupthink is associated with illusions of invulnerability and superior morality, strong pressure toward uniformity, and insulation from outside input.

Groupthink occurs most often in highly cohesive groups when members feel a need to achieve consensus and, therefore, disregard and discourage consideration of alternative actions. -Actively encouraging dissent and criticism would help disrupt the pattern of communication and problem-solving that characterizes groupthink.