Flashcards in Industrial Organizational Psychology Deck (107)
What are some different elements for learning in training
identical elements: Transfer of training: similarity between the learning and performance environment
Overlearning- practice past the point of mastery
elaborative rehearsal: making new information meaningful by relating it to previously acquired information
The research has shown that, after participating in a group discussion, group members are likely to advocate more extreme positions than they would have advocated if they had not participated in the discussion. This phenomenon is referred to as?
What is the difference between this concept and risky shift?
The risky shift is like group polarization but includes only the "risky" end of the decision continuum.
What is the deepest level of Schien's levels of Organizational Culture? And what are the cognitive defense mechanisms of the group?
First- observable artifacts-dress code, stories and rituals and annual reports
Second- Espoused values and beliefs (organizational norms, goals and ideologies)
third deepest- basic underlying assumptions- unconscious taken for granted perceptions, beliefs, thoughts and emotions - defense mechanism and
can impede change
The person-organization fit refers to the match between the employee's values, needs, preferences, etc. and the culture of the organization. A good P-O fit has been linked to several benefits including? A good P-O fit is achieved primarily by?
enhanced satisfaction, motivation, and organizational commitment and reduced stress and turnover.
Selection and socialization have been identified as the primary opportunities for ensuring a good person-organization fit (e.g., Chatman, 1991): Selection helps identify individuals whose characteristics match the characteristics of the organization, while socialization (e.g., behavioral modeling by and feedback from the supervisor, participation in work-related social events (ice cream party)) helps employees acquire the skills, knowledge, and attitudes that are compatible with the organization's culture.
What is situational specificity
Occurs when validity information is specific to a particular circumstance and does not generalize to other circumstances.
Organizational Development interventions are implemented mostly to improve productivity but other reasons include responsiveness to customers, enhancing companies competitiveness and employee moral.
What is a process consultant? What behaviors do they target?
Another Organizational Development intervention self-managed work teams (SMWTs): what are they? What is the difference between SMWT, Quality-Work-Life Programs (QWL) and Quality Circles (QC) and Total Quality Management (TQM)
Process consultants focus on processes (interactions) between people and how these processes interfere with the achievement of their goals. They alter processes that are undermining their ability to interact with one another.
-behaviors that relate to communication, leadership, decision-making, conflict resolution, and member's roles in groups.-Gary_
SMWTs are made up of employees who work together as a unit, with leadership usually rotating from one member to another. Members of SMWTs make hiring, budget, and other decisions that were previously made by managers.
-QWL: emphasizes employee empowerment, Unions, EAP-lower-level employees
Quality circles are an example of parallel structures. -(QC) Quality circles consist of small groups of 13-15 employees who volunteer to meet periodically, usually once a week for an hour or so, to identify and solve productivity problems. These group members make recommendations for change, but decisions about implementation of their proposals are reserved for management. Research has shown that parallel structures and quality circles do play an important role in employee productivity and job satisfaction.
SMWT_ autonomous group that makes management decisions.
TQM: A core definition of total quality management (TQM) describes a management approach to long-term success through customer satisfaction. In a TQM effort, all members of an organization participate in improving processes, products, services, and the culture in which they work. (Designer chairs)
Expectancy theory predicts that motivation is a function of three beliefs: expectancy, instrumentality, and valence
What does the beliefs Expectancy, Instrumentality and Valence refer to?
Expectancy: refers to the belief that good performance will be rewarded.
Instrumentality: performance leads to a reward
Valence: the reward has value
Do peer evaluations provide accurate and useful information?
Peer evaluations are not often used in organizations, but the research indicates that they can provide accurate and useful information and indicate a promotion
Peer evaluations have been found valid for certain purposes and appear to be particularly accurate in predicting training success and subsequent promotions.
The research suggests that peer and supervisor ratings agree more with each other than they do with self-ratings.
Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership Model distinguishes between 4 leadership styles that are characterized by different combination of task and relationship orientation: appropriate style depends on subordinates______ which is a combination of ability and willingness to take responsibility. what are the 4 leadership styles and what is the appropriate style for each?
followers who are comparatively low on maturity should benefit from high structuring combined with low consideration. As the follower gains maturity, the need for leader structuring declines, but the need for supervisory supportiveness actually increases. At the highest levels of follower maturity, the need for both leader structuring and social supportiveness declines further, such that at the highest levels of follower maturity, leader structuring and consideration are irrelevant to follower performance
-Telling: high task(directive), low relationship style (supportive): low ability and low willingness: Leader A leader’s primary concern lays with the task delivery and less with the personal needs of the subordinates. Typical behaviour for a S1 leadership style, is offering step-by-step instructions, clear explanation of the consequences of non-performance and close supervision. In such a situation, it is important that the task is clearly defined and the stages of the process are easy to follow. This is important because the leader believes that the follower (R1) either does not know what to do or is unwilling and requires therefore a certain degree of coercive power. (R1) A follower with a R1-status is unable to complete the required task, because they do not possess the necessary set of skills to perform well. Moreover, they are either unwilling to deliver the required task or lack self-confidence
--Selling: high task/directive and high relationship/supportive = low ability and high willingness: The leader’s style should therefore be concerned with increasing the confidence and skills of followers so that they can ultimately take on more responsibility for their actions. this style is necessary for D2 followers, who used to be highly enthusiastic in the beginning but who lost confidence because their competences are failing them: follower unable to perform a certain task, but in contrast to a R1 follower, willing to try anyway. In other words: they are motivated to attempt the task even though they lack the skills, knowledge and/or ability to do so. This follower style is often seen with new employees who are keen to impress their supervisor, but still lack the work experience to be productive right from the start.
- Participating: Low task (directive) and High relationships (supportive) = High ability Low willingness (unwilling/ low commitment) likely to be able to perform well on their task, since they have developed the necessary skill set. The problem, however, is that they are unwilling to do so. The reason for this behavior are twofold: followers could be un-motived to comply with the leader’s request or could (still) be nervous about performing the task without enough support and encouragement from the leader
--Delegating: Low task (directive) and Low relationship (supportive) = High Ability and High Willingness they are ready, able and willing to perform. This means that followers are experienced at the required task and comfortable with their own ability to do it well and independently. They are able and willing to not only do the task, but to take responsibility for it
What correlates to job satisfaction?
Job satisifaction refers to the employee's cognitive, affective, and evaluative reations to his or her job:
Job satisfaction is an adequate predictor of good health but not job performance
As predicted by the Taylor-Russell tables, the incremental validity of a selection test that has a validity coefficient of .50 will be the greatest when:
the selection ratio is .05 and the base rate is .50.
The Taylor-Russell Tables provide information on a test's incremental validity for various combinations of base rates, selection ratios, and validity coefficients.
A test with even a low or moderate validity coefficient can improve decision-making accuracy when the selection ratio is low (e.g., .05) and the base rate is moderate (near .50).
What type of consultant would help board members, staff, and teachers identify and modify the ways in which their behaviors are inconsistent with their goals.
Process consultants focus on processes (interactions) between people and how these processes interfere with the achievement of their goals. Process consultation focuses on identifying and altering the overt behaviors that are interfering with normal social processes. It is based on the assumption that behavior change is the priority and precedes attitude change.
In his well-known 1973 study, Rosenhan had several "pseudopatients" admit themselves to psychiatric hospitals with complaints of auditory hallucinations. Which of the following is most useful for explaining the results of Rosenhan's study?
In Rosenhan's study, mental health professionals responded to ("rated") pseudopatients on the basis of their original diagnoses regardless of their subsequent behaviors. The response of mental health professionals in this study can be interpreted as a rater bias.
The halo effect is a rater bias that occurs when a rater's ratings of an individual on one or several dimensions are affected by his or her rating on another dimension. The halo effect does explain the response of mental health professionals in this study; i.e., the mental health professionals continued to "rate" pseudopatients on the basis of their first ratings (diagnosis), regardless of the patients' subsequent behaviors.
____________ program evaluation focuses on identifying and evaluating the benefits gained by participation in a program, and is typically used for evaluation of non-profit programs.
____________ evaluations focus on how well the program is achieving set objectives.
________ evaluations regard the effectiveness of the program's systems and structures.
Ohio State University identified two basic and independent dimensions of leadership behavior. What are they?
-Consideration: warmth, concern rapport and support__ PERSON oriented.
-Initiating structure: the extent to which a leader defines, directs, and structures his/her own role. and the role of the subordinates:-- leaders high on initiating structure+ TASK oriented
Needs theorist of motivation
Needs: Maslow : 5 basic needs instinctual
Two Factor Theory: lower level needs -hygiene factors-dissatisfiers: when there not necessary unsatisfied: context-surrounds the job- supervisor, working condition, pay. relationship with co workers: if all met does not lead to satisfaction/motivation but will keep them satisfied
High: (motivators/satisfiers); content; what you are actually doing on the job- need to achieve, opportunity. increase satisfaction and motivation. if not met then neutral not dissatisfied; formed the idea of job enrichment
The major advantage of using a forced-choice method as an employee performance appraisal technique is that:
When using the forced-choice technique, the rater chooses the behavior from two or more behaviors that best describe the employee, with behaviors being paired or grouped so that they are similar in terms of social desirability.
This technique was developed specifically to reduce rater biases, and there is some evidence that it accomplishes this goal.
A drawback of this technique is the difficulty of its development.
The forced-choice technique is considered more useful for obtaining an overall rating of performance than for obtaining the information needed to give employees feedback about their performance.
The forced-choice technique is a subjective measure of job performance.
Research shows that a Compressed workweek, Flextime and Shiftwork strongly impacts or does not strongly impact what factors?
Compressed workweek: increase performance, job satisfaction, satisfaction with work schedule that effects attitude.-- most attitude
Disadvantage: does not strongly impact performance and absenteeism
Flextime: positive effects on productivity, overall job satisfaction, and work schedule, and absenteeism but Does not strongly impact performance.
Shift-rotating is the worst- disrupts circadian rhythm, increases fatigue, sleepiness, lack of concentration, and accidents. swing shift impacts family roles and social life while graveyard-family, social, physical health and work related problems.
A low selection ratio and a moderate base rate are useful for:
A predictor is most likely to increase decision-making accuracy (i.e., have good incremental validity) when there are many applicants to choose from (a low selection ratio) and when the current technique produces a moderate number of correct decisions (moderate base rate).
Three approaches to program evaluations
______ program evaluation focuses on identifying and evaluating the benefits gained by participation in a program, and is typically used for evaluation of non-profit programs.
_______ evaluations focus on how well the program is achieving set objectives.
________ evaluations regard the effectiveness of the program's systems and structures.
Outcomes-based: benefits gained by the participant
Goals-based: focus on how the program is achieve goals
Process-based: program's systems and structures
Is job satisfaction stable over time?
what are the top 5 factors that contribute to job satisfaction?
There has been a myriad of research investigating the relationship between job satisfaction and various measures of job performance. The most consistent finding is that job satisfaction is inversely related to?
The studies have found that job satisfaction is relatively stable over time and across jobs.
One explanation for the stability of job satisfaction is that it is strongly related to a tendency toward positive or negative affect, which is a stable characteristic: In other words, people with negative affect tend to be dissatisfied with work, while those with positive affect tend to be satisfied.
-job satisfaction is genetic
-has a U shape relationship with age: high when start a new job, and decrease till older age
-Satisfaction increases with occupational level
-maybe a reciprocal relationship between job and life satisfaction.
5 factors to job sati. job security, opportunities to use skill (over qualified=job dissatisfaction, higher turnover, poorer physical and mental health), organizations financial stability, relationship with supervisor, compensation pay (equal pay more important)
absenteeism and turnover (inverse relationship--high the satisfaction the lower the absentee)
(job satisfaction tends to increase with age.
and individuals with higher levels of education tend to have higher levels of satisfaction.
What are the three approaches to Program Evaluations?
What are the approaches to evaluation of training programs? "did it work?"
-Outcome based program evaluations: benefits received by client participation in a group-enhancing learning or conditions -non for profit-
-Goal-based evaluations: how well the program is achieving it's set goals
-Process- based evaluations: effectiveness of the program's systems and structures
---- program output is not considered evaluation-----
-Kirkpatricks: four levels of criteria
Reaction-were they satisfied with the program
Learning: what was learned
Behavioral: was there a change in behavior
Results: did it meet the organization's goals
-Utility Analysis: gain or loss
-Formative and summative
What are the JOB factors that contribute to job satisfaction?
job security, opportunity to use skills, organizations financial stability, relationship with immediate supervisor, compensation/pay
Opportunity to use abilities and skills is most commonly linked. and over-qualification is linked to dissatisfaction, higher turnover rates, and poorer physical and mental health.
Relationship of pay to job satisfaction is questionable. Most studies suggest that other factors, of job interest, relationships and security, but pay impact job fairness and equitably (compensation)
What does Activation Theory Purpose
Activation theory proposes that energy expenditure and performance are positively related to stimulus variability. Enriched jobs provide stimulus variability and therefore should increase activation (motivation) level and performance.
Brouseau and Driver's decision dynamics career model emphasizes a person's _______. Their model distinguishes between 4 career paths which are ?
Career concept or how a person envisions her career path.
Linear career concept- progressive upwards movement towards authority
expert career concept: lifelong commitment to a career specialty
Spiral Career Concept: periodic movements across occupational specialties
Transitory career concept- ideal career involves frequent job changes to unrelated fields.
in terms of training program evaluation, Kirkpatrick contends that -- criteria are the most important criteria to evaluated but are often the most difficult to develop and therefore the most infrequently used. and why?
For levels of evaluation criteria
Learning: how much the trainees learned
Behavior: change in performance
Results- the fourth level criteria and assess the value of the training program in terms of organizations goals-the higher the level of evaluation the more difficult and costly the evaluations will be but also the most significant .
Correlation between levels are low- need to assess more than one level to get a better picture of what is going on.
What are the two models of individual decision making proposed by Herbert Simon (1979)?
Herbert Simon (1979) identified two models of individual decision-making: the rational-economic model _ decision makers maximize benefits by systematically searching for it and considering all alternatives. this model assumes they have all the information and are able to process alternatives in an unbias way.
-The other is_ the bounded rational (administrative) model. According to Simon, limited time and resources require decision-makers to be less than totally rational. Specifically, rather than considering all alternatives before making a decision, they consider alternatives only until they encounter one that meets minimum requirements of acceptability. satisfices rather than optimizes or maximizes -make the solution that becomes first available and select the solution the meets the minimum criteria.
What are the different methods of training?
What are the psychological factors that affect training
trainings-nonparticipative (watching lecture) participative (individual: programmed instruction-booklets, software can train individuals all at the same time)
Off the job
simulation training-vestibule training
On the job
Job rotation: management
Individual differences: trainability (cog. test, biodata) difference between trainees will intensfy- more skilled individual get more skills
self efficacy: idea that you can do it and expectation that you will succeed
Motivation: can be improved by involving in decisions in training program
Locus of control- internal affects motivation
active vs. passive practice
Massed vs. space practice- spaced better
whole and part learning
Transfer of training: over learning ( learning past the point of mastery and identical elements
Chin and Benne (1976) identified three strategies for overcoming resistance to change in organizations:
-rational-empirical strategy-- Providing employees with information about the change when resistance to change is due to a lack of knowledge
Normative-reeducative __ is based on the premise that peer pressure and sociocultural norms are effective methods for promoting change. Therefore, having employees work together to accomplish change is likely to be part of this strategy.
Power-coercive strategy: Relying on a strong leader to gain cooperation and by using rewards to encourage employees to comply with plans for change