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Flashcards in Impact of Cultural Globalisation Deck (23)
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1

how is cultural and economic globalisation linked?

cultural globalisation underpins the spread of global capitalism by promoting consumerism and propagating appetites, values and lifestyles that make market economies appear natural and unchallengeable

both have been greatly enhanced by technological innovation such as the advent of television, mobile phones, computers and the internet, as well as the emergence of media empires such as Disney

2

negatives of consumerism (and therefore a negative of cultural globalisation)

cultural globalisation has led to the spread of consumerism, which is criticised for three main reasons by anti-globalisation movements

1) consumerism is a device used by TNCs to expand their influence and profitability, ensuring that ascendancy within the new globalised economy

in No Logo (2000), Naomi Klein (a Canadian journalist and anticorporate activist) drew attention to what she called the tyranny of ‘brand culture’

2) consumerism has been condemned as an assault on local, regional and national distinctiveness — creating a world in which everything looks the same and everyone thinks and acts the same, which is a world without a sense of belonging

3) consumerism and materialism and have been associated with the process of manipulation that distorts values and denies happiness — this occurs through the tendency of advertising and marketing to create false needs, keeping people in a state of constant neediness and want

3

how has cultural globalisation led to consumerism and individualism?

consumer capitalism has been shaped by the development of new advertising and marketing techniques that took advantage of the growth of the mass media and the spread of mass affluent

the spread of industrial capitalism, first in western societies and then, due to globalisation, in other parts of the world has confronted people with a broader range of choices and social possibilities

thus encouraging them to think for themselves and think of themselves in personal terms, therefore leading to the spread of individualism

the spread of individualism has also been linked to developments like the advance of democracy (by 2003 63% of the world states exhibited some features of liberal democratic governance) and the wider acceptance of human rights as the dominant principle in international affairs — both of which have been made possible by cultural globalisation

4

cultural globalisation as a form of cultural imperialism (criticism of cultural globalisation)

many critics of cultural globalisation emphasise that cultural flows take place between unequal partners, and so allow powerful states to exert domination over weaker states

in this view, cultural globalisation is a form of cultural imperialism which tends to have a markedly western or more specifically American character

this idea that globalisation is merely Westernisation comes from the fact that the West is home to the consumer capitalism and industrial society that has been spread across the world

cultural globalisation is arguably Americanisation as a disproportionate amount of goods and images that dominate modern commerce and the global media derive from the USA

this spread of US norms and lifestyles overwhelms more vulnerable cultures, leading. for instance, to Palestinian youths wearing Chicago Bulls sweatshirts

5

how has cultural globalisation strengthened local cultures? or led to more diversity rather than cultural flattening?

cultural exchange is by no means a top-down or one-way process

instead, all societies, including economically and politically powerful ones, have become more varied and diverse as a result of the emergence of a globalised culture

Western societies have been influenced by non-western religions, food (such as curries, soy sauce, tortillas) medicines and therapeutic practices (such as acupuncture, yoga, Buddhist meditation) and sports (such as judo, karate and kick boxing)

aspects of non-Western cultures have become popular in Western societies

6

key terms....
• Americanisation
• Asian values
• cultural imperialism

Americanisation = the political and economic dominance of the USA and the spread of American cultural values to other parts of the world

Asian values = values that reflect the history, culture and religious backgrounds of Asian societies, examples include social harmony, respect for authority and a belief in the family

cultural imperialism = the displacement of indigenous cultures by the imposition of beliefs, values and attitudes usually associated with consolidating or legitimising economic and political domination

7

has cultural globalisation reshaped world politics?

NO
• some countries have resisted individualism and therefore have not been changed or reshaped by cultural globalisation

• it strengthens local culture is therefore not reshaping world politics, simply strengthening existing norms


YES
• led to the spread of consumerism

• led to the spread of individualism

• contributed to the rise of militant Islam, which defines today’s world politics

• led to more diversity in all societies

8

is globalisation simply Americanisation?

YES

the USA dominates the world in terms of its cultural outreach — American style clothing is seen everywhere and US festivals such as Halloween now have a global following

American inspired products and styles dominate global brand culture and monopolise global markets, creating a uniform culture based on that in the US

the 10 most profitable films in history, led by Avatar, are American, the top 10 global restaurant chains are all US-led (including McDonald’s, KFC and Subway), the 10 most admired companies in the world are US-led (including Apple and Google), 4 of the top 5 most visited websites are American (including Google, Facebook and YouTube)

US brands have global outreach — e.g. the equivalent of 20% of the world’s population drinks a Coca-Cola product every day

the USA is the dominant global economy, representing 22% of global GDP in 2016 and the free trade principles, fostered by the Washington Consensus and advances by the WTO, IMF and World Bank, have dominated the globe

US global troop deployments are unparalleled, further extending US interests and ideals — there are a total of 130,000 US troops stationed around the world, including 34,000 in Germany and 24,000 in South Korea

9

is globalisation simply Americanisation?

NO

the internet has provided new opportunities to challenge the USA’s cultural outreach, which provides a level playing field in which the USA competes equally with other nations and ideologies

the mega-hit Gangnam Style by South Korean popstar Pay reached 2.74 billion hits in 2017, making it the most watched video on YouTube

the most popular global television show in 2015 was the UK’s top gear, one of the most popular global sports is cricket (2.5 billion fans), British values have a global appeal through the worldwide popularity of television programmes like Downton Abbey and Sherlock and the Harry Potter books and films

rival news channels such as the BBC and Al Jazeera challenge the influence of CNN

the USA’s soft power influence is regularly challenged by the UK (first place, 2015) and Germany (first place, 2013)

the carnage that resulted from the American invasion of Iraq in 2003, including detention at Guantanamo Bay and the atrocities at Abu Ghraib, have undermined US global influence

the USA’s global popularity is changing — in 2015 only 44% of Chinese had a positive view of the USA and 49% had a negative view, while in Russia just 15% had a positive view and 81% had a negative view

China has become the biggest global investor in other countries, the establishment of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank is designed to challenge the dominance of the World Bank in the developing world, the Chinese firm Sinopec is now the world’s wealthiest business

President Trump’s commitment to ‘America first’ and his executive order withdrawing the USA from the Trans-Pacific Partnership suggest that the country now feels it has become the victim of, rather than the driving force behind, economic globalisation

10

to what extent has globalisation created a global monoculture?

CULTURAL HOMOGENISATION

cultural homogenisation is the process by which cultural differences are flattened out, encouraging the development of a more uniform global culture

it has been claimed that the spread of global consumer culture has undermined the significance of national boundaries in determining the culture of a nationstate

this has led to cultural homogenisation and created a global monoculture

what makes a society, culture or civilisation unique is therefore lost through conformity to certain global cultural norms

the internet has further reinforced the potential for global monoculture by creating a worldwide audience for popular celebrities, trends and products

11

to what extent has globalisation created a global monoculture?

GLOCALISATION

glocalisation has enabled local communities to mould global brands to their own culture

this suggests that globalisation allows global influences to adapt to local conditions, thus creating a new distinctive culture rather than blending into a monoculture

the Balti curry was developed in Birmingham and is a mixture of Indian and British-Asian influences

chicken tikka is similarly British in origin and has frequently topped polls as the UK’s favourite food

famous brands such as McDonald’s have adapted to local conditions, serving lobster burgers in Canada and vegetarian burgers to the Hindu market in India

Bollywood has taken influence from Hollywood, while adding distinctly Indian glamour and romance

this challenges the view that globalisation is creating a global monoculture

12

to what extent has globalisation created a global monoculture?

REINFORCING NATIONAL IDENTITIES

cultural globalisation has created a negative backlash, actually reinforcing ethnic and national identities rather than contributing towards a global monoculture or encouraging tolerance or diversity

rather than bringing the world closer together, globalisation is doing the exact opposite by stirring resentment against what many regard as cultural imperialism and Americanisation

the reaction against cultural homogenisation and a fear of loss of identity has led to the rise of identity politics, through which nation states seek to define themselves according to their own unique characteristics

this can be seen today across Europe with the rise of political parties and leaders who achieve popularity by emphasising the distinctiveness of their own own culture, with promises to safeguard it from being absorbed into a global monoculture

in Hungary, Victor Orben has generated huge appeal by emphasising the country’s Christian heritage as a frontier state resisting Muslim advance and in the Netherlands Geert Wilders has said that Islam can have no place in Dutch society

in the UK, the surge in support for UKIP during the 2015 general election indicated a more nationalistic mind set among voters and the 2016 Brexit vote suggests that many viewed European integration as a threat to the British ‘way of life’

in the US, Trump’s executive order to build a wall along the Mexican border as well as indefinitely banning Syrian refugees and prioritising the rights of Christian over Muslim refugees can be seen as a resistance against the development of a ‘global monoculture’ and an attempt to preserve ‘traditional American values’

13

to what extent has globalisation created a global monoculture?

CLASH OF CIVILISATIONS

in his 1996 hypothesis, the Clash of Civilisations, Samuel Huntington acknowledged that cultural globalisation can actually create a reaction against a global monoculture because threatened cultures seek to reassert their own values in defiance of Coca-Colonisation

other civilisations have sought to protect their own identity through characterising their values are superior to those of the west and rejecting western values

for example, the right to determine one’s sexuality is now accepted throughout much of western Europe, but gay sex is still illegal in 72 countries and is punishable by the death-penalty in 10

the President of Uganda has condemned western tolerance of homosexuality, declaring it “disgusting” and “un-African”

in Russia there has been a resurgence of national identity during the Putin years, closely associated with Slavic Pride and the moral conservativism of the Orthodox Church

in his State of Union address in 2014, Putin accused American liberalism and consumerism of leading to “a path of degradation”

14

to what extent has globalisation created a global monoculture?

ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM

cultural globalisation has often been seen as a threat to Islam, with some militant branches of Islam seeking to oppose Western values rather than accommodate them

the growth of Islamic fundamentalism is the most striking example of the rise of identity politics as a reaction against cultural homogenisation

it views western culture as morally bankrupt and overly materialistic, contrasting to the purity of Islam

it has spread in North Africa and Afghanistan from the 1980s onwards and has broadened as a result of the western invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq

the so-called Islamic State is another manifestation of how cultures that may feel threatened seek to restore their sense of uniqueness in response to the perceived cultural imperialism of globalisation

15

to what extent has globalisation created a global monoculture?

COCA-COLONISATION

Brendan Barber has termed the materialism that cultural globalisation encourages as ‘Coca-Colonisation’

Naomi Klein has referred to ‘commodity fetishism’, whereby we become so obsessed with materialism and brand culture that we undermine the uniqueness of our own culture

brands such as Hollister, Nike, Apple and Microsoft are globally recognised

globally, 50% of internet traffic and 40% of radio programmes are in English

according to Barber, this has created a ‘McWorld’ culture in which people all over the world crave the same sort of materialistic fulfilment, enjoy the same sort of entertainment and eat the same sort of Americanised food

the 10 most successful global restaurant chains and the 10 most profitable films in history are all American

according to Fortune, in 2015, 8 of the top 10 most admired brands in the world were American

the global domination of certain brands and the desire to emulate US standards of dress, food and entertainment has led to the diluting of distinct cultures and the development of a monoculture

16

to what extent has globalisation created a global monoculture?

CREATES MORE DIVERSITY RATHER THAN A MONOCULTURE

cultural globalisation has the potential to provide us with greater choice than ever before, creating rich global diversity rather than a uniform culture

rather than creating a monoculture, it actually creates a more globally diverse culture as people across the world have a global array of choices

for example....
• Japanese manga comics have a global audience
• in Russia, the most popular television show in 2015 was the UK-made Sherlock Holmes
• Doctor Who and Downton Abbey are hugely popular in the US
• Real Madrid and Manchester United are two of the most popular sports teams in the world and Chelsea has a strong following in Latin America

further evidence of the diversity of experience that globalisation offers can be seen across the UK’s highstreets — in 1960, there were 500 Indian restaurants in the UK, now there are 9500

one of the fastest growing restaurant chains in the world is Nando’s, a South African company with Portuguese/Mozambique influences — in 1992, it had one branch in the UK but by 2017 there were 339

17

arguments to suggest that cultural globalisation has reshaped world politics / has had a greater impact than any other form of globalisation

led to the spread of individualism

led to the spread of consumerism

contributed to the rise of militant Islamism

(it has created a global culture characterised by individualism and consumerism as well as the threat of religious fundamentalism, as these three concepts define the world today, cultural globalisation appears to have played a significant role in reshaping world politics)

18

cultural globalisation has reshaped world politics

LED TO THE SPREAD OF INDIVIDUALISM

it has led to the spread of individualism, which is the belief in the importance of the individual over any social group or collective body

previously, people had been seen primarily as members of their social groups, including their family, village, local community and nation — individuals tended not to be seen as having their own interests or possessing personal and unique identities that extended beyond their local or national cultures

with cultural globalisation, individualism has spread and people are now far less tied to specific groups because a truly global culture has developed

a study by Santos, Varnum and Grossmann found that both individualistic practices and values have increased across the globe — data indicates that individualism has increased by about 12% worldwide since 1960

only 4 of the countries studied (Cameroon, Malawi, Malaysia and Mali) showed a decrease in individualistic practices and only 5 showed a decrease in individualistic values, while 34 of the 41 countries studied showed a notable increase

Santos points out that “overall, most countries are moving towards greater individualism” and becoming less collectivist, instead adopting more liberal values

this can be linked to developments which have been made possible by cultural globalisation, such as the spread of democracy (by 2003, 63% of the world’s states exhibited key features of liberal-democratic governance) and the emergence of a human rights-based culture

there has clearly been a move towards a single global community built around individualism, arguably rooting from cultural globalisation

therefore, cultural globalisation can be said to have significantly reshaped world politics and the values accepted across all countries

19

cultural globalisation has reshaped world politics

LED TO THE SPREAD OF CONSUMERISM

led to the spread of consumerism, which is a psychological and cultural phenomena whereby personal happiness is equated with the consumption of material possessions

cultural globalisation has involved an advance of a culture of consumer capitalism known as ‘turbo-consumerism’

in particular, the process of ‘Coca Colonisation’ has led to the emergence of global goods and brands that dominate economic markets all across the world, creating an image of bland uniformity

for example, Coca-Cola is undeniably one of the most recognised brands in the world with an estimated 94% of the world’s population recognising the logo — it is sold in more than 200 countries, approximately 1.9 billion Coca-Cola drinks are consumed each day and each person will consume at least one Coca-Cola product every four days

McDonald’s is another global brand, with over 36,000 restaurants in 120 countries that serve around 68 million customers each day

it’s clear that the world is becoming a place where the same cultural commodities are consumed regardless of national borders

in No Logo (2000), Naomi Klein drew attention to what she referred to as the tyranny of “brand culture”, which many perceived to be an assault on local, regional and national distinctiveness

Ben Barber describes this uniformity of culture as pressing nations into “a single commercially homogenous theme park” creating a “shimmering scenario of integration and uniformity in which people everywhere are mesmerised by fast music, fast computers and fast food”

as a result of globalisation, the world appears to be dominated by US norms and lifestyles, which often overwhelm more vulnerable cultures — e.g. Palestinian youths wearing Chicago Bulls sweatshirts

20

cultural globalisation has reshaped world politics

CONTRIBUTED TO THE RISE OF MILITANT ISLAMISM

a backlash to cultural globalisation has emerged in recent years as it has been seen as a form of cultural imperialism and Americanisation

this has led to a rise in anti-globalisation, anti-capitalist and green movements, which view globalisation, including cultural globalisation, as being responsible for poverty, inequality and environmental degradation

there has also been a rise in religious fundamentalism to combat cultural flattening by globalisation — cultural globalisation has arguably contributed to the rise of militant Islam, which defines today’s world politics

in certain parts of the Muslim world, the encounter with Americanisation and the perceived cultural imperialism of globalisation has inspired abhorrence towards the West, specifically the US

this has encouraged the view that the West is morally bankrupt and an enemy of Islam and such backlash is seen to threaten the existing global order, leading to an increased chance of conflict and weakening the ability of international institutions to tackle global issues

as cultural globalisation is a major factor behind these backlashes, cultural globalisation can be said to have reshaped world politics

24

cultural globalisation has not reshaped world politics

INDIVIDUALISM HAS BEEN RESISTED BY MANY COUNTRIES

global sceptics would argue that the rise of individualism, and therefore the impact of cultural globalisation, should not be overstated given that some countries have resisted individualism

individualism has been readily accepted in the Western world, where it has been most culturally agreeable considering the impact of Protestant ideas about the personal benefits of individual self striving

however, individualism has been successfully resisted in Catholic societies in Europe and many countries elsewhere that have maintained the ethics of social responsibility and collectivism

the best examples of such anti-individualist cultures include China, Taiwan, South Korea and Singapore

for example, China is a highly collectivist culture in which the group, rather than the individual, is of central importance — this Chinese collectivism is the opposite of the individualism seen in the Western world and some suggest that this reflects the capacity of Asian values to provide an alternative to the Western individualism that has been spread by cultural globalisation

this suggests that the world has not been reshaped by cultural globalisation as many countries have resisted being part of a uniform culture based on individualism

25

cultural globalisation has not reshaped world politics

STRENGTHENED LOCAL CULTURES RATHER THAN FLATTENED THEM OUT

cultural globalisation has not created a uniform culture but has actually strengthened local cultures

in developing countries, Western consumer goods and images have been absorbed into more traditional cultural practices through indigenisation/glocalisation, thus cultural globalisation seems to be reinforcing existing norms rather than flattening out cultural differences

moreover, contrary to the belief that a monoculture has developed, nationalism is still very much prominent

for example, there has been a history of conflict between Russia and Chechnya, with Chechen separatists declaring independence in 1991 and the first Chechen War breaking out in 1994, largely due to ethnic nationalism

similarly, Catalonia’s independence movement, which seeks the independence of Catalonia from Spain, has roots in Catalan cultural nationalism

likewise, nationalism and the nationstate, as seen in Trump’s ‘America first’ doctrine, has strengthened

these examples demonstrate that many cultures and groups of people are resisting being absorbed into a single global culture, instead people are emphasising their own local cultures and placing independence and distinction above all else

this challenges the idea that a global culture has developed, suggesting that cultural globalisation has not reshaped world politics

26

arguments to suggest that cultural globalisation has not reshaped global politics / has not had a greater impact than any other form of globalisation

individualism has been resisted by many countries

many local cultures have been strengthened rather than flattened out