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Flashcards in Immunophysiology Deck (163)
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121

What regulates class-switching?

Cytokines

122

Which different 'Constant region' RNA transcripts exist?

Which isotypes do they produce?

  • Cµ → IgM
  • Cγ → IgG
  • Cα → IgA
  • Cδ → IgE
  • Cε → IgD

123

Give the major characteristics of the immune response

  • Specificity
  • Diversity
  • Memory
  • Self restriction
  • Differentiation of self fron non-self

124

What is an antigen?

  • Substance recognised by T/B cell receptors
  • Induces active immune response/tolerance

125

Immunogen

Fine chemical structure, which can induce specific immune response

126

Epitope

Region of the antigen molecule recognized by Ig/BcR or TcR

127

Paratop

Ligand pair of the epitope

128

Hapten

  • Antigen
  • Can't induce immune reaction itself
  • Recognised by immunoglobulins

129

Carrier

  • Holds hapten molecules on the surface
  • Doesn't participate in the anti-hapten immune reaction

130

No AB

131

Anti-BSA

132

  • Anti-T4
  • Anti-BSA
  • Anti-T4/BSA

133

Immunogenicity

The capacity to create immune response

134

Immunogenicity is determined by...

  • Grade of fereignness
  • Molecular weight
  • Structure complexity

135

Antigenicity is determined by...

  • Binding force
  • Specificity

136

Immune reaction followed by a repeated immunisation by the body is called...

Secondary immune response

137

Give the steps of the secondary immune response

  1. Antigen stimulus
  2. Lymphocyte proliferation and increase
  3. Antibody + memory cell production

138

Which cells allow for faster, more efficient immune responses?

Memory cells

139

Which molecules are responsible for 'self' and 'non-self' differentiation?

  • Immunoglobulins
  • B cell receptors (BcR)
  • T cell receptors (TcR)
  • MHC class I and II molecules

140

MHC molecules are genetically determined, true or false?

True

141

What is shown in the figure?

Class I (Left) and Class II (Right) MHC molecules

142

After the APC binds to the T-helper cell, what occurs

  1. Cytokine production in APC (importantly, dentritic cells)
  2. Interleikin-2 production in T-helper cell
  3. Activating T-helper cell proliferation

143

MHC II can be found in...

  • Langerhans cell
  • Interdigital cell
  • Dendritic cell
  • B-lymphocytes
  • Macrophage cells

144

Fc Receptors can be found in...

  • Langerhans cell
  • Dendritic cells
  • B-lymphocytes
  • Macrophage cells

145

C3b receptors can be found in...

  • Langerhans cell
  • Dendritic cells
  • B-lymphocytes
  • Macrophage cells

146

Phagocytosis can be found in...

  • Dendritic cells
  • Macrophages

147

In which two phases does humoral acquired immunity develop?

  • Antigen-independent (Preparatory)
  • Antigen dependent

148

Antigen-independent phase of humoral aquired immunity

  • Pre-B-lymphocytes → virgin-B-lymphocytes
  • IgG-like molecule appears on the cell surface
  • Enter the blood

149

Antigen-dependent phase of humoral aquired immunity

  • Virgin-B-lymphocyte binds to compatible Antigen on APC
  • Virgin-B-lymphocyte is activated by interleukins
  • May be T-helper cell independent or dependent
  • B-lymphocytes undergo blastic transformation in secondary lymph organs
  • Eventually, immunoglobulins are released into blood

150

Antigen-independent phase of cellular aquired immunity

  • Pre-T-lymphocytes → virgin-T-lymphocytes
  • IgG-like molecule (TCR) appears on the cell surface (becomes Ti cell)
  • Enter the blood