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Flashcards in Immunophysiology Deck (163)
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31

Describe the clasic pathway to the complement system

  • Previously produced specific antibody + antigen:
  • Build a complex
  • Complex initates the process

32

Describe the alternative pathway to the complement system

  • Previously unknown antigen
  • Appears and acts as a trigger

33

Describe the Mannose binding lectin activated pathway to the complement system

Mannose-binding lectin binds mannose on pathogen surface

34

What is the function of the complement system?

  • Lysis of bacterial membranes
  • Initiation of chemotaxis
  • Stimulate opsonisation

35

After the complement system has been activated

  1. Autocatalytic process
  2. Complement protein activation in plasma
  3. Membrane-drill formed
  4. Pathogen membrane disturbed
  5. Death of pathogen

36

Chemotaxis

Complement factors attract phagocytes to the site of reaction

37

Membrane drill

38

The three complement activating pathways converge to the...

C3 complement component

39

What are the two major forms of aquired/specific immune response

  • Humoral Immunity
  • Cellular immunity

40

Clones of B cells

In secondary lymph organs

41

Ag stimulus

42

  • Blastic transformation
  • Plasma cells

43

  • Helper
  • Supressor
  • Cytotoxic

44

Hematopoietic stem cells are produced in...

Bone marrow

45

Hematopoietic stem cells produce...

  • Myeloid progenitor cells
  • Lymphoid progenitor cells

46

Which inflammatory cells does the Myeloid progenitor cell produce?

  • Neutrophil
  • Basophil
  • Eosinophil
  • Monocyte

47

Which cells does the monocyte produce?

  • Dendritic cell
  • Macrophage

48

Why is active immunity named as such?

The system actively responds to the antigen

49

Passive immunity

Individual made immune by recieving cells/immunoglobulins by an immunised individual

50

Acquired immunity is divided into which two groups?

  • Active immunity - specific, creates memory
  • Passive immunity - specific, no memory

51

What occurs during the Afferent phase of acquired immunity?

  • Ly-repertoir express receptors
  • Recognise Ags, Ag and LyR interactions
  • Ag activation + processing
  • Discrimination between 'self' and 'non-self'

52

What occurs during the Central phase of acquired immunity?

Non-specific immune cells undergo:

  • Activation
  • Proliferation
  • Differentiation

B-cells → Plasma cells

T-Cells → Effector T-Lymphocytes

 

53

What occurs during the Efferent phase of acquired immunity?

  • Immune cells eliminate 'non-self' structures
  • Protect/develop tolerance against 'self' structures

54

Major characteristics of humoral immunity

  • Antigen recognition: by Antibodies or T/B-cell receptors
  • Immunoglobulins specifically bind ligands
  • Immunoglobulin production

55

Give the regions/chains of immunoglobulins

  • Heavy chains
  • Light chains
  • Variable regions
  • Constant regions

56

Heavy chain

57

Light Chain

58

Variable Region

59

Constant Region

60

Flexible Hinge region