Describe the clasic pathway to the complement system
- Previously produced specific antibody + antigen:
- Build a complex
- Complex initates the process
Describe the alternative pathway to the complement system
- Previously unknown antigen
- Appears and acts as a trigger
Describe the Mannose binding lectin activated pathway to the complement system
Mannose-binding lectin binds mannose on pathogen surface
What is the function of the complement system?
Lysis of bacterial membranes
- Initiation of chemotaxis
- Stimulate opsonisation
After the complement system has been activated
- Autocatalytic process
- Complement protein activation in plasma
- Membrane-drill formed
- Pathogen membrane disturbed
- Death of pathogen
Complement factors attract phagocytes to the site of reaction
The three complement activating pathways converge to the...
C3 complement component
What are the two major forms of aquired/specific immune response
- Humoral Immunity
- Cellular immunity
Clones of B cells
In secondary lymph organs
- Blastic transformation
- Plasma cells
Hematopoietic stem cells are produced in...
Hematopoietic stem cells produce...
- Myeloid progenitor cells
- Lymphoid progenitor cells
Which inflammatory cells does the Myeloid progenitor cell produce?
Which cells does the monocyte produce?
- Dendritic cell
Why is active immunity named as such?
The system actively responds to the antigen
Individual made immune by recieving cells/immunoglobulins by an immunised individual
Acquired immunity is divided into which two groups?
- Active immunity - specific, creates memory
- Passive immunity - specific, no memory
What occurs during the Afferent phase of acquired immunity?
- Ly-repertoir express receptors
- Recognise Ags, Ag and LyR interactions
- Ag activation + processing
- Discrimination between 'self' and 'non-self'
What occurs during the Central phase of acquired immunity?
Non-specific immune cells undergo:
B-cells → Plasma cells
T-Cells → Effector T-Lymphocytes
What occurs during the Efferent phase of acquired immunity?
- Immune cells eliminate 'non-self' structures
- Protect/develop tolerance against 'self' structures
Major characteristics of humoral immunity
Antigen recognition: by Antibodies or T/B-cell receptors
- Immunoglobulins specifically bind ligands
- Immunoglobulin production
Give the regions/chains of immunoglobulins
- Heavy chains
- Light chains
- Variable regions
- Constant regions
Flexible Hinge region