Flashcards in Immunization and Vaccinations Deck (58)
What types of immunity are there?
Self vs non-self
Protection from infectious disease
Indicated by the presence of antibody
Specific to a single organisms
A liven or inactivated substance capable of producing an immune response
Protein molecule (immunoglobulin) produced by B lymphocytes to help eliminate an antigen
Transfer of antibody produced by one human or other animal to another
What are the most important sources in infancy of passive immunity?
Transplacental transfer and breastfeeding
What are some sources of passive immunity?
All blood or blood products
Homologous pooled human antibody (immune globulin)
Homologous human hyperimmune globulin
Heterologous hyperimmune serum (antitoxin)
Derived from a single type of antibody-producing cells (B cells)
What are monoclonal antibodies used for?
Used for diagnosis and therapy of certain cancers, autoimmine, and infectious disease
Produced by vaccine
Immunity and immunologic memory similar to natural infection (without disease risk)
1st principle of vaccination
The more similar a vaccine is to the disease-causing form of the organism , the better the immune response to the vaccine
What are some considerations when developing a new vaccine?
Safe and effective production of a vaccine?
Side effects worse than disease?
How long does preclinical testing for a new vaccine last?
2 - 4 years
What must the volunteers for a new vaccine agree to?
Vaccine administration, follow-ups for eval and physical testing, provide blood samples
How long to clinical trials for vaccinations last?
5 - 7 years
What is phase 1 for vaccine clinical trials?
Safety - candidate vax tested in small numbers to healthy adults to assess short term and adverse effects and correct dose
What is phase 2 for vax clinical trials?
Multiple stages of several hundred appropriate-age volunteers in multiple centers which assess expanded safety parameters and provocation of an immune response
What is phase 3 for vax clinical trials?
Thousands required to confirm degree of immune response/side effects, eval of vax in general population and potential value and use of the vaccine for general public health practice
What is phase 4 for vax clinical trials?
Detect rare/unexpected reactions, measure program effects
What is a live attenuated vaccine?
Weakened form of the wild virus or bacterium
Generally works in one dose (exclude oral)
What must a vax do to be considered live attenuated?
Must replicate to be effective, produce immune response similar to natural infection
What are some complications of a live attenuated vax?
Severe rxns, interference from antibodies
Vax is fragile - stored and handled carefully
Examples of live attenuated viral vax
Measles, mumps, rubella, varicella/zoster, yellow fever, rotavirus, intranasal influenza, rotavirus, vaccinia
Examples of live attenuated bacterial vax
BCG, oral typhoid
What parts may be used (fractional) can be used in an inactivated vax?
Protein-base: toxiod, sub-unit
Polysaccharide-based: pure, conjugate
Characteristics of inactivated vax
No replication, less interference by antibodies, 3 -5 doses, humoral response mostly, antibody titer may dimish
Examples of inactivated whole-cell vax
polio, hepatitis A, rabies, influenza
What does a fractional subunit vax contain?
Minimal amounts of nonvirus antigens derived from the culture medium
Less likely to cause adverse reaction than whole version
Examples of fractional inactivated vax
What does a fractional toxoid vax contain?
Treated to destroy vax toxic properties, but retain the capacity to stimulate production of antitoxins