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Flashcards in imaging of the lung Deck (35)
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1

what is in the lung field

diaphragm and recesses
fissures
hilar region
thoracic cage

2

what is in the mediastinum

heart
great vessels
trachea
soft tissues

3

commonly used medical techniques

radiography - plane and special
CT
MRI
ultrasonography
nuclear medicine imaging

4

what is the principle of imaging

body tissues selectively limit the passage of radiation

5

order of tissues from radiolucent to radioopaque

air/gas
fat
water/fluid
bone
metal

6

order of PA components

posterior - x-ray tube
person
anterior - detector

7

what position do you take PA from

erect

8

what position do you take AP from

erect or supine

9

PA view

normal
heart close to film so undistorted
scapular rotated away from the heart
clavicle cross lung field

10

AP view

supine
heart magnified
scapula overlaps
clavicles projected above apex

11

what do you check when you get an x ray

patient details
rotation
inspiration - diaphragm low enough so can see top 9 ribs
AP/PA/lateral/supine
exposure - should be able to see the intravertebral disks behind the cardiac shadow

12

anatomical things to check on an x ray

airways
bones
distance of the clavical from the midline is symmetrical
fractures
circulation
diaphragm
effusion - check lung edges are sharp - if not fluid
angle obtuse if atria are enlarged?
lung fields
gas bubble in stomach
mediastinal shadow
aortic knuckle/aorta
cardiac silhouette
transverse diameter of heart should exceed 50% of thorax
any other

13

pneumothorax

no vascular markings
hyperlucent R lung field
eg clavicle fracture
no lung sounds
cause tachycardia

14

treatment for pneumothorax

chest drain

15

pleural effusion

fluid in pleural cavity
fluid level in relation to R lobe
right costo-diaphragmatic recess obliterated

16

lung hilar lymphadenopathy

lymph node masses because of sarcoid or lymphoma

17

lung spread from carcinoma of uterine cervix

mass in r middle lobe and hilar nodes

18

pulmonary artery angiogram

special contrast imaging
radio opaque contrast contrast material injected into the pulmonary artery and imaged as pass through arterial tree

19

oesophagus barium swallow

can see the aortic arch impression
Lt main bronchus impression
left arterial impression

20

Tomos (CT)

slice

21

Graphein (CT)

to draw

22

what does a CT do

x ray tube moves in arc around body
image detectors moves in opposite dirn in same arc
only axial point in surface
signal put into a computer
image reconstructed and displayed
image viewed from inferior side
can see the heart chambers

23

choices for CT

standard CT, Ct angiography, contrast, windowing, reconstructions

24

what is a window setting

after scan obtained data is digitally manipulated to reveal different structures in great detail

25

MR imaging

more details and differentiation is seen
uses magnetic field
depends on alignment of protons of H atoms in magnetic field
radio waves excite protons which flip over
they give measurable energy when they flip back when pulsing is removed
more protons (ie more water) emit larger signal
signals processed by a computer and images are formed

26

what planes can you do MRI in

sagittal
coronal
axial

27

T1 weighting

show soft tissues
ventricles of lungs

28

T2 weighting

fluid filled areas more clearly

29

ventricular depolarisation

defect in septum

30

mitral regurgitation

reflux into L atrium