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Flashcards in Identity Inequalities Deck (54)
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What is ethnic identity?

The way that different ethnicities see themselves in society.


What does Gilroy say about ethnic minority's experiences in the UK?

Black people create a separate identity called the 'Black Atlantic' due to them experiencing the same inequalities.


What does Spencer say about ethnic minority's experiences in the UK?

White ethnic minorities feel intimidated by the British and so 'do not let others inside their circles'.


What does Cashmore and Trayna say about ethnic minority's experiences in the UK?

Minorities 'turn inwards' to protect each other as racism unifies people.


What is multiculturalism?

Policies being put in place to ensure minorities are not experiencing inequalities at the expense of racism from the majority.


What is a criticism of multiculturalism?

Whites feel pressured to compete for housing and jobs whilst minorities are given an advantage due to the policies that support them.


What did Modood believe?

Second generation immigrants feel more integrated into society as they are socialised with UK culture.


What does functionalist Wilson believe about gender identity?

Role allocation is based on biology because women are more weak and caring.


What does functionalist Parsons believe about gender role allocation?

Women have an 'expressive' role in family life and men have an 'instrumental' role, due to their biology, however it is amplified through socialisation.


What evidence is used to criticise the argument that gender roles are biologically determined?

Many indigenous tribes having more aggressive and dominant women whilst the men are submissive and caring.


What did Hey believe?

Teenage girls act in a way that they believe is desirable to their male peers, showing the societal demand to be dominated by men.


What did Mac and Ghaill believe in regards to masculinity?

Boys value the 3 F's


How does Jackson say female identity is changing?

Some girls are now known as 'ladettes', exhibiting typical male mannerisms and activities such as smoking and swearing.


How does Connell say male identity is changing?

Subordinate masculinity = homosexual
Marginalised masculinity = unemployment


What is national identity?

The identity of a whole country.


What does Anderson say about national identity?

It is an 'imagined community' as we will never meet everyone in our nation but are unified through the flag, anthem and sports.


What does Kumar believe about national identity?

The vagueness of an English identity causes Scots and Welsh to prefer label of individual nation.


How do postmodernists believe national identity is changing?

1) Media educates nations and breaks barriers so that nationality becomes less significant.

2) Secularization has caused a decline in traditions and holidays that would have unified nationalities.


What does Sardar say about changing national identity?

There is currently a 'global identity crisis' as nations are merging and blurring lines that make them individual.


What is cultural homogenization as proposed by Hall?

Cultures becoming wholly similar as they merge.


What is cultural resistance as proposed by Hall?

Nations rejecting aspects of other cultures to maintain their original identity e.g. EDL


What is sexuality?

Someone's sexual orientation that reveals the gender they are sexually attracted to.


What 5 things show the changing attitudes to sexuality?

1) Equality Act of 2010
2) Pride
3) Celebrity LGBTQ+
4) Legalisation in UK passed in 2013
5) Black gay USA senator in 2020


What does Weeks say about sexual identity?

'Sexual identity is a strange thing' as peoples orientation doesn't always correspond with whom they're in a relationship with.


How does Reiss support Weeks?

Claims male prostitutes engage sexually with men but are heterosexual.


What does Mcintosh say about sexual identity?

Gay males adopt traits of attention to appearance, high voice and feminine mannerisms.


How does Plummer support Mcintosh?

States that gay males seek other homosexuals through these traits to create a community.


What does Rich say about oppressing lesbianism?

Males oppress women's sexuality to maintain dominance as patriarchal terrorism is seen in heterosexual relationships.


Who are the upper class?

Those with inherited wealth and a high culture.


What do Mackintosh and Mooney say about the upper class?

They have 'social closure' as their sports and activities are unavailable to the majority.