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Flashcards in I/O Psychology Deck (336)
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Overall job dissatisfaction results in:

physical and psychological disorders


What types of jobs lead to dissatisfaction

jobs that are tiring, tedious, and repetitive, where opportunities for the use of skills is limited


Perception of satisfaction

Thought to be cognitively mediated to a degree; pos. ppl tend to feel more positive about job, including problematic aspects of job and setting


Herzberg's high hygiene + high motivation

Ideal situation in which employees are highly motivated and have few complaints


Herzberg's low hygiene + high motivation

Employees are motivated and experience the work as exciting and challenging, but have multiple complaints and perceive the salaries and work conditions to be sub-par.


Four leadership styles of path-goal theory

Supportive (considerate and showing concern for subordinates); directive (communicating expectations and specific guidelines); participative (seeking out employee input); achievement-oriented (setting challenging goals, emphasizing excellence, and confidence in subordinates)


Gender findings for work-family conflict

Women experience greater work stress than men; women with children have highest levels of stress hormones; women have better coping strategies than men; having balance in work/family roles can have positive effect on self-esteem for women


Type A/B in I/O field

Increased arousal for type A when deprived of work; learning new tasks equally stressful for both; social support stressful for Type A; work performance moderated by task variety for Type A; external locus of control lowers job satisfaction more for Type A than Type B individuals.


Goal setting is most effective when:

tasks are difficult but less complex (Locke)


Money and job performance

Money has a positive effect


Locke: Negative performance for goal-setting

Goals self-set with monetary rewards


Vroom's key elements to motivation

Valence (value); instrumentality (belief that efforts will matter); and expectancy (used to determine if increased effort will be beneficial)


McCelland's nAch

Need for achievement; preference for moderately difficult tasks, moderate risk, strive to reach goals,maintain high level of performance, prefer individual vs. group effort, work to completion, assume responsibility, committed to self-set goals, stay at jobs longer; gain satisfaction from task completion; seek recognition from others; tend to be highly correlated with job success


McCelland's Need for Power

Desire for control, influence, and responsibility for others and resources, preoccupied with status, look for promotions/upward mobility, can use power for greater good of the group; common goal of people: complete agreement and compliance from those around them


McCelland's Need for Affiliation

Emphasized establishment and maintenance of relationships, sensitive to criticism, relationship builders, conflict-avoidant, enjoy being an integral part of larger group, good team player, desire approval from others, and personal success tied to success of group; higher levels associated with entrepreneurial success


Maslow's steps to self-actualization

Physiological needs, safety, love/belongingness, status/esteem, self-actualization


Process consultation

a "helping" relationships that facillitates ability for managers/employees/groups to achieve goals. Consultant works with and not for the client.


Major assumption of process consultation

Behavior must change before attitudes can change


Focus of process consultation

Distinguishing and/or changing disruptive behaviors that negatively impact normal social processes.


Role of consultant in process consultation

observes, gives feedback on alternative strategies


Role of client in process consultation

learns to own their problems, gains necessary skills to problem-solve, gain expertise in diagnosing organizational/group problems


Loss aversion model

In situations involving uncertainty and possible risk, people prefer avoiding losses to obtaining gains. Considered irrational because it is based on perception more than reality


Two corollaries of loss aversion

Risk aversion (less likely to take risks to obtain gains) and risk seeking (more likely to seek risks to avoid losses)


Sunk costs

The more one invests in something the more unreasonable it seems to abandon it


Disjunctive task

A group task in which one solution to a particular problem is selected from a pool of options. Creates high-quality results as opposed to high quantity. Best performer can bring up the whole group. Success requires at least one member have necessary expertise.


Conjunctive task

A group task that cannot be completely successful until all members of the group have completed their portion of the job; therefore the least-skilled worker determines the speed and quality of the work.


Aggregate task

A combination of two or more group tasks or projects


Additive task

A group project or task that can be undertaken by aggregating individual members' efforts or contributions


Compensatory task

A task or project a group can complete by averaging together individual members' solutions and recommendations



Calling for high quantity of product as opposed to high quality